Interaction Effect of the Mediterranean Diet and an Obesity Genetic Risk Score on Adiposity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: The HELENA Study
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Metabolic syndromeMediterranean dietGenetic risk scoreHelenaAdolescentsSex
Seral-Cortes, M., Sabroso-Lasa, S., Miguel-Etayo, D., Gonzalez-Gross, M., Gesteiro, E., Molina-Hidalgo, C., ... & Labayen, I. (2020). Interaction Effect of the Mediterranean Diet and an Obesity Genetic Risk Score on Adiposity and Metabolic Syndrome in Adolescents: The HELENA Study. Nutrients, 12(12), 3841. [doi:10.3390/nu12123841]
SponsorshipIberus Talent Pre-doctoral fellowships 2018, under the European Union's H2020 research and innovation programme under Marie Sklodowska-Curie grant 801586; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición, CIBERObn ISCIII-CB15/00043; European Union (EU) FOOD-CT-2005-007034; HELENA project; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness RYC-2010-05957 RYC-2011-09011; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Fisiopatología de la Obesidad y Nutrición (CIBERObn)
Obesity and metabolic syndrome (MetS) are worldwide major health challenges. The Mediterranean diet (MD) is associated with a better cardiometabolic profile, but these beneficial e ects may be influenced by genetic variations, modulating the predisposition to obesity or MetS. The aim was to assess whether interaction e ects occur between an obesity genetic risk score (obesity-GRS) and the MD on adiposity and MetS in European adolescents. Multiple linear regression models were used to assess the interaction e ects of an obesity-GRS and the MD on adiposity and MetS and its components. Interaction e ects between theMDon adiposity and MetS were observed in both sex groups (p < 0.05). However, those interaction e ects were only expressed in a certain number of adolescents, when a limited number of risk alleles were present. Regarding adiposity, a total of 51.1% males and 98.7% females had lower body mass index (BMI) as a result of higher MD adherence. Concerning MetS, only 9.9% of males with higher MD adherence had lower MetS scores. However, the same e ect was observed in 95.2% of females. In conclusion, obesity-related genotypes could modulate the relationship between MD adherence and adiposity and MetS in European adolescents; the interaction e ect was higher in females than in males.