Grape Seeds Proanthocyanidins: An Overview of In Vivo Bioactivity in Animal Models
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AuthorRodríguez Pérez, Celia; García Villanova Ruiz, Belén; Guerra Hernández, Eduardo Jesús; Verardo, Vito
Grape seed by-productsProanthocyanidinsMetabolic syndromeChronic diseasesIn vivo animal studies
Rodríguez-Pérez, C., García-Villanova, B., Guerra-Hernández, E., & Verardo, V. (2019). Grape seeds proanthocyanidins: An overview of in vivo bioactivity in animal models. Nutrients, 11(10), 2435.
Over the last decade, proanthocyanidins (PACs) are attracting attention not only from the food industry but also from public health organizations due to their health benefits. It is well-known that grapes are a good source of PACs and for that reason, the industry is also focused on grape by-products identification and bioactivity evaluation. Grape seeds extract (GSPE) is a rich source of PACs, mainly composed of monomeric catechin and epicatechin, gallic acid and polymeric and oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Thus, this review encompasses the state-of-art structure and the most recent evidence about the impact of GSPE on chronic diseases, with a focus on oxidative stress, inflammation and metabolic syndrome (MeS)-related disorders such as obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular risk disease in vivo to offer new perspectives in the field that allow further research. Despite the controversial results, is undeniable that PACs from grape seeds are highly antioxidants, thus, the capacity of GSPE to improve oxidative stress might mediate the inflammation process and the progress of MeS-related pathologies. However, further well-design animal studies with standardized dosages and GSPE composition are necessary to shed light into the cause-effect relationship in a more accurate way to later allow a deeper study of the effect of GSPE in humans.