The Effect of an Infant Formula Supplemented with AA and DHA on Fatty Acid Levels of Infants with Different FADS Genotypes: The COGNIS Study
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AuthorSalas Lorenzo, Isabel; Chisaguano Tonato, Aida M.; de la Garza Puentes, Andrea; Espejo Nieto, Ana; Herrmann, Florian; Diéguez Castillo, Estefanía; Castellote, Ana I.; López-Sabater, María del Carmen; Rodríguez-Palmero, Maria; Campoy Folgoso, Cristina
Fatty acidsOmega 6Omega 3Breast milkInfant formulaFatty acid desaturasesEarly life nutritionControl formulaIntervention formulaExclusive breastfeeding
Salas Lorenzo, I.[et al.]. The Effect of an Infant Formula Supplemented with AA and DHA on Fatty Acid Levels of Infants with Different FADS Genotypes: The COGNIS Study.
SponsorshipThis research was funded by ORDESA Laboratories, S.L., Spanish Ministry of Economy, Industry and Competitiveness, NEOBEFOOD Project (2010–2013) and SMARTFOODS Project (2014–2018)—CIEN Strategy (Ministry of Innovation and Science-CDTI) through 2 different contracts established between Ordesa Laboratories and the University of Granada General Foundation (ref. nº3349 and nº4003, respectively) and between Ordesa Laboratories and the Bosch Gimpera Foundation/University of Barcelona (ref. n 306811 and 308516). The project was partially funded by EU Project DynaHEALTH (HORIZON 2020-GA No.633595).
Polymorphisms in the fatty acid desaturase (FADS) genes influence the arachidonic (AA) and docosahexaenoic (DHA) acid concentrations (crucial in early life). Infants with specific genotypes may require different amounts of these fatty acids (FAs) to maintain an adequate status. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of an infant formula supplemented with AA and DHA on FAs of infants with different FADS genotypes. In total, 176 infants from the COGNIS study were randomly allocated to the Standard Formula (SF; n = 61) or the Experimental Formula (EF; n = 70) group, the latter supplemented with AA and DHA. Breastfed infants were added as a reference group (BF; n = 45). FAs and FADS polymorphisms were analyzed from cheek cells collected at 3 months of age. FADS minor allele carriership in formula fed infants, especially those supplemented, was associated with a declined desaturase activity and lower AA and DHA levels. Breastfed infants were not affected, possibly to the high content of AA and DHA in breast milk. The supplementation increased AA and DHA levels, but mostly in major allele carriers. In conclusion, infant FADS genotype could contribute to narrow the gap of AA and DHA concentrations between breastfed and formula fed infants.