Argan pulp as a novel functional ingredient with beneficial effects on multiple metabolism biomarkers
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AuthorMartínez Martínez, Rosario; Ortuño Guzmán, Ana María; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Melguizo Alonso, Consolación; Prados Salazar, José Carlos; López-Jurado Romero De La Cruz, María; Porres Foulquie, Jesús María
Argan pulpFunctional ingredientPolyphenolsInsulin resistanceGut microbiotaAntioxidant activity
R. Martínez et al. Argan pulp as a novel functional ingredient with beneficial effects on multiple metabolism biomarkers. Journal of Functional Foods 110 (2023) 105864[https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jff.2023.105864]
SponsorshipUniversity of Granada, Junta de Andalucía, Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities; European Union through projects PTQ-17-09172; RTI2018- 100934-B-I00; RTC2019-006870-1; B-AGR-662-UGR20; FEDER program; AGR145; CTS164; CTS107 (Andalusian Government)
Argan tree is mainly used to obtain the oil from its seeds in a process that generates by-products such as the pulp of the fruit. The aim of this study was to assess the in vitro antioxidant activity and profile of bioactive compounds from an argan fruit extract, and to assay the metabolic effects of the argan pulp intake in a mouse experimental model. Our results showed a high in vitro antioxidant activity in ethanolic extracts of argan juice and pulp measured as total polyphenol content, reducing capacity, ABTS, DPPH, and lipid peroxidation inhibition capacity. In addition, several bioactive compounds with antioxidant, hypoglycemic, and anti-inflammatory activity were identified (vaccihein A, bergapten, methyl chloragenate, 2-O-caffeoyl glucaric acid, avicularin, quercetin-3- O-sophoroside, prodelphinidin B4 and mirificin). Dietary intake of argan pulp induced a remarkable hypoglycemic activity and decreased the gene expression of inflammatory markers. Gene expression and enzyme activity of liver antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes were differentially affected by argan pulp intake, whereas gut microbiota was modulated decreasing the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio. In conclusion, argan pulp can be considered a functional food or ingredient with beneficial effects on several metabolism biomarkers.