Evaluating the Impact of Sex-Biased Genetic Admixture in the Americas through the Analysis of Haplotype Data
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AdmixtureAmerican populationsSex-biased imbalanceHaplotypesHuman migrations
Ongaro, L... [et al.]. Evaluating the Impact of Sex-Biased Genetic Admixture in the Americas through the Analysis of Haplotype Data. Genes 2021, 12, 1580. [https://doi.org/10.3390/genes12101580]
SponsorshipEuropean Commission 2014-2020.4.01.16-0030 2014-2020.4.01.16-0271 2014-2020.4.01.16-0125 2014-2020.4.01.16-0024 2014-2020.4.01.15-0012; MOBEC008; Estonian Research Council grant PUT PRG243 PRG1027; European Commission 810645 824110; Ministry of Education, Universities and Research (MIUR) PRIN2017 20174BTC4R
A general imbalance in the proportion of disembarked males and females in the Americas has been documented during the Trans-Atlantic Slave Trade and the Colonial Era and, although less prominent, more recently. This imbalance may have left a signature on the genomes of modern-day populations characterised by high levels of admixture. The analysis of the uniparental systems and the evaluation of continental proportion ratio of autosomal and X chromosomes revealed a general sex imbalance towards males for European and females for African and Indigenous American ancestries. However, the consistency and degree of this imbalance are variable, suggesting that other factors, such as cultural and social practices, may have played a role in shaping it. Moreover, very few investigations have evaluated the sex imbalance using haplotype data, containing more critical information than genotypes. Here, we analysed genome-wide data for more than 5000 admixed American individuals to assess the presence, direction and magnitude of sex-biased admixture in the Americas. For this purpose, we applied two haplotype-based approaches, ELAI and NNLS, and we compared them with a genotype-based method, ADMIXTURE. In doing so, besides a general agreement between methods, we unravelled that the post-colonial admixture dynamics show higher complexity than previously described.