Effects on Steroid 5-Alpha Reductase Gene Expression of Thai Rice Bran Extracts and Molecular Dynamics Study on SRD5A2
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5α-reductaseAndrogenetic alopeciaRice branTocopherolSRD5A2Molecular dynamicsRD69Tubtim chumphae
Khantham, C.; Yooin, W.; Sringarm, K.; Sommano, S.R.; Jiranusornkul, S.; Carmona, F.D.; Nimlamool, W.; Jantrawut, P.; Rachtanapun, P.; Ruksiriwanich, W. Effects on Steroid 5-Alpha Reductase Gene Expression of Thai Rice Bran Extracts and Molecular Dynamics Study on SRD5A2. Biology 2021, 10, 319. https://doi.org/10.3390/ biology10040319
SponsorshipNational Research Council of Thailand (NRCT): NRCT5-RRI63004-P05; Chiang Mai University
Steroid 5-alpha reductases (SRD5As) are responsible for the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, a potent androgen, which is the aetiologic factor of androgenetic alopecia. This study aimed to compare the SRD5A gene expression suppression activity exerted by Thai rice bran extracts and their components and investigate the interactional mechanism between bioactive compounds and SRD5A2 using molecular dynamics (MD) simulation. Bran of Oryza sativa cv. Tubtim Chumphae (TRB), Yamuechaebia Morchor (YRB), Riceberry (RRB), and Malinil Surin (MRB), all rice milling by-products, was solvent-extracted. The ethanolic extract of TRB had the highest sum of overall bioactive compounds (γ-oryzanol; α-, β-, and γ-tocopherol; phenolics; and flavonoids). Among all extracts, TRB greatly downregulated the expression of SRD5A1, SRD5A2, and SRD5A3; there were no significant differences between TRB and finasteride regarding SRD5A suppression. The linear relationship and principal component analysis supported that the α-tocopherol content was correlated with the SRD5A suppression exerted by TRB. Furthermore, MD simulation demonstrated that α-tocopherol had the highest binding affinity towards SRD5A2 by interacting with residues Phe118 and Trp201. Our findings indicate that α-tocopherol effectively downregulates the expression of SRD5A genes and inhibits SRD5A2 activity, actions that are comparable to standard finasteride. TRB, a source of α-tocopherol, could be developed as an anti-hair loss product.