Biomimetic Mineralization Promotes Viability and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Perfusion Bioreactor
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ScaffoldPerfusion bioreactorCollagenApatite nanoparticlesMagnesiumHuman Mesenchymal Stem CellsOsteogénesis
Ramírez-Rodríguez, G.B.; Pereira, A.R.; Herrmann, M.; Hansmann, J.; Delgado-López, J.M.; Sprio, S.; Tampieri, A.; Sandri, M. Biomimetic Mineralization Promotes Viability and Differentiation of Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells in a Perfusion Bioreactor. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 1447. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/ijms22031447
SponsorshipEU Marie Curie Project "Bio-Inspired Bone Regeneration" 607051; Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MCIU) RYC-2016-21042 RTI-2018-095794A-C22; Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research (IZKF) at the University ofWuerzburg D-361; MCIU
In bone tissue engineering, the design of 3D systems capable of recreating composition, architecture and micromechanical environment of the native extracellular matrix (ECM) is still a challenge. While perfusion bioreactors have been proposed as potential tool to apply biomechanical stimuli, its use has been limited to a low number of biomaterials. In this work, we propose the culture of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSC) in biomimetic mineralized recombinant collagen scaffolds with a perfusion bioreactor to simultaneously provide biochemical and biophysical cues guiding stem cell fate. The scaffolds were fabricated by mineralization of recombinant collagen in the presence of magnesium (RCP.MgAp). The organic matrix was homogeneously mineralized with apatite nanocrystals, similar in composition to those found in bone. X-Ray microtomography images revealed isotropic porous structure with optimum porosity for cell ingrowth. In fact, an optimal cell repopulation through the entire scaffolds was obtained after 1 day of dynamic seeding in the bioreactor. Remarkably, RCP.MgAp scaffolds exhibited higher cell viability and a clear trend of up-regulation of osteogenic genes than control (non-mineralized) scaffolds. Results demonstrate the potential of the combination of biomimetic mineralization of recombinant collagen in presence of magnesium and dynamic culture of hMSC as a promising strategy to closely mimic bone ECM.