Effects of Gut Metabolites and Microbiota in Healthy and Marginal Livers Submitted to Surgery
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AuthorMicó-Carnero, Marc; Rojano-Alfonso, Carlos; Álvarez Mercado, Ana Isabel; Gracia-Sancho, Jordi; Casillas-Ramírez, Araní; Peralta, Carmen
MicrobiotaLiver transplantationPartial hepatectomyLiver surgeryIschemia-reperfusion
Micó-Carnero, M.; Rojano- Alfonso, C.; Álvarez-Mercado, A.I.; Gracia-Sancho, J.; Casillas-Ramírez, A.; Peralta, C. Effects of Gut Metabolites and Microbiota in Healthy and Marginal Livers Submitted to Surgery. Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2021, 22, 44. [https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22010044]
SponsorshipMinisterio de Ciencia, Innovacion y Universidades (MCIU) Madrid, Spain RTI2018-095114-B-I00; European Union (Fondos Feder, "Una manera de hacer Europa"); CERCA Program/Generalitat de Catalunya; Secretaria d'Universitats i Recerca Barcelona, Spain 2017SGR-551; COST action Programs CA17103 CA17126
Microbiota is defined as the collection of microorganisms within the gastrointestinal ecosystem. These microbes are strongly implicated in the stimulation of immune responses. An unbalanced microbiota, termed dysbiosis, is related to the development of several liver diseases. The bidirectional relationship between the gut, its microbiota and the liver is referred to as the gut–liver axis. The translocation of bacterial products from the intestine to the liver induces inflammation in different cell types such as Kupffer cells, and a fibrotic response in hepatic stellate cells, resulting in deleterious effects on hepatocytes. Moreover, ischemia-reperfusion injury, a consequence of liver surgery, alters the microbiota profile, affecting inflammation, the immune response and even liver regeneration. Microbiota also seems to play an important role in post-operative outcomes (i.e., liver transplantation or liver resection). Nonetheless, studies to determine changes in the gut microbial populations produced during and after surgery, and affecting liver function and regeneration are scarce. In the present review we analyze and discuss the preclinical and clinical studies reported in the literature focused on the evaluation of alterations in microbiota and its products as well as their effects on post-operative outcomes in hepatic surgery.