Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Perceived External and Internal Faces of Controlling Teaching among Students in Physical Education
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AuthorBurgueño Menjibar, Rafael; Abós, Ángel; García González, Luis; Tilga, Henri; Sevil Serrano, Javier
Motivating styleNeed-thwarting behavioursControlling behaviourExternally controllingInternally controllingBasic psychological needs
Burgueño, R.; Abós, Á.; García-González, L.; Tilga, H.; Sevil-Serrano, J. Evaluating the Psychometric Properties of a Scale to Measure Perceived External and Internal Faces of Controlling Teaching among Students in Physical Education. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 298. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18010298]
SponsorshipSpanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) EDU2013-42048-R
There are no validated instruments to date that have examined the students’ perceptions of externally and internally controlling teaching practices in physical education (PE). Grounded in self-determination theory, the objective of this research was to provide validity and reliability evidence of the Controlling Teaching Scale for Physical Education (CTS-PE) to assess the external and internal faces of controlling teaching in PE through two sequential studies. In Study 1 (n = 241 students), an exploratory factor analysis revealed an eight-item two-factor solution (four items per factor). In Study 2 (n = 968 students), a confirmatory factor analysis supported the eight-item two-factor correlated model (i.e., externally and internally controlling teaching) that was invariant across gender. Reliability coefficients indicated an acceptable level of reliability for the two factors of the CTS-PE. A structural equation modelling showed that externally and internally controlling teaching behaviours positively predicted need frustration, and negatively need satisfaction. The current study gathered evidence to consider the CTS-PE as a valid and reliable instrument to assess students’ perceptions of PE teachers’ externally and internally controlling teaching behaviours. The CTS-PE provides PE teachers with deeper insights into the negative psychological experiences associated with externally and internally controlling teaching behaviours in PE.