Exosomes: Their Role in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases
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AuthorAheget, Houssam; Mazini, Loubna; Martín Molina, Francisco; Belqat, Boutaïna; Marchal Corrales, Juan Antonio; Benabdellah, Karim
ExosomesMolecular compositionCancer pathogenesisDiagnosticTherapeutics
Aheget, H.; Mazini, L.; Martin, F.; Belqat, B.; Marchal, J.A.; Benabdellah, K. Exosomes: Their Role in Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment of Diseases. Cancers 2021, 13, 84. [https://doi.org/10.3390/cancers13010084]
SponsorshipSpanish ISCIII Health Research Fund; European Union (EU) PI12/01097 PI15/02015 PI18/00337 PIE16-00045 DTS19/00145 PI18/00330; Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) RTI2018-101309-B-C22; Junta de Andalucia SOMM17/6109/UGR; Chair of "Doctors Galera-Requena in cancer stem cell research" CMC-CTS963; Junta de Andalucia CARTPI-0001-201; CECEyU of the Junta de Andalucia FEDER/European Cohesion Fund (FSE) 2016000073391-TRA 2016000073332-TRA PI57069 PAIDI-Bio326 PI-0014-2016; CSyF of the Junta de Andalucia FEDER/European Cohesion Fund (FSE) 2016000073391-TRA 2016000073332-TRA PI57069 PAIDI-Bio326 PI-0014-2016; Nicolas Monardes Regional Ministry of Health 0006/2018; National Center for Scientific and Technical Research (CNRST) 2UAE2020; Mohammed VI Polytechnic University of Morocco
Exosomes are lipid bilayer particles released from cells into their surrounding environment. These vesicles are mediators of near and long-distance intercellular communication and affect various aspects of cell biology. In addition to their biological function, they play an increasingly important role both in diagnosis and as therapeutic agents. In this paper, we review recent literature related to the molecular composition of exosomes, paying special attention to their role in pathogenesis, along with their application as biomarkers and as therapeutic tools. In this context, we analyze the potential use of exosomes in biomedicine, as well as the limitations that preclude their wider application. Simple Summary: The aim of this review is to provide an overview of the current scientific evidence concerning the role played by exosomes in the pathogenesis, diagnosis and treatment of diseases. The potential use of exosomes as delivery vectors for small-molecule therapeutic agents will be discussed. In addition, a special emphasis will be placed on the involvement of exosomes in oncological diseases, as well as to their potential therapeutic application as liquid biopsy tools mainly in cancer diagnosis. A better understanding of exosome biology could improve the results of clinical interventions using exosomes as therapeutic agents.