Fundamentals of light-cell–polymer interactions in photo-cross-linking based bioprinting
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American Institute of Physics
Nieto, Daniel Marchal Corrales, Juan Antonio Jorge de Mora, Alberto Moroni, Lorenzo. Fundamentals of light-cell–polymer interactions in photo-cross-linking based bioprinting. APL Bioengineering 4, 041502 (2020); [https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0022693]
SponsorshipXunta de Galicia; European Research Council starting grant "Cell Hybridge" 637308; Junta de Andalucia; European Union (EU) B-CTS-230-UGR18 PY18-2470; Instituto de Salud Carlos III, ERDF funds DTS19/00145
Biofabrication technologies that use light for polymerization of biomaterials have made significant progress in the quality, resolution, and generation of precise complex tissue structures. In recent years, the evolution of these technologies has been growing along with the development of new photocurable resins and photoinitiators that are biocompatible and biodegradable with bioactive properties. Such evolution has allowed the progress of a large number of tissue engineering applications. Flexibility in the design, scale, and resolution and wide applicability of technologies are strongly dependent on the understanding of the biophysics involved in the biofabrication process. In particular, understanding cell–light interactions is crucial when bioprinting using cell-laden biomaterials. Here, we summarize some theoretical mechanisms, which condition cell response during bioprinting using light based technologies. We take a brief look at the light–biomaterial interaction for a better understanding of how linear effects (refraction, reflection, absorption, emission, and scattering) and nonlinear effects (two-photon absorption) influence the biofabricated tissue structures and identify the different parameters essential for maintaining cell viability during and after bioprinting.