Current Information and Asian Perspectives on Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids in Pregnancy, Lactation, and Infancy: Systematic Review and Practice Recommendations from an Early Nutrition Academy Workshop
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Arachidonic acidEicosapentaenoic acidDocosahexaenoic acidPolyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA)Nutrition in pregnancyPerinatal nutritionInfant's feeding
Koletzko, B., Boey, C. C., Campoy, C., Carlson, S. E., Chang, N., Guillermo-Tuazon, M. A., ... & Su, Y. (2014). Current information and Asian perspectives on long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in pregnancy, lactation, and infancy: systematic review and practice recommendations from an early nutrition academy workshop. Annals of Nutrition and Metabolism, 65(1), 49-80. [https://doi.org/10.1159/000365767]
SponsorshipDSM; Mead Johnson Nutrition; Wyeth Nutrition; Sequoia; Abbott Laboratories; Danone; Fonterra; Hipp; Mead Johnson; Nestle; European Commission Joint Research Centre; Yakult Honsha Co., Ltd., Tokyo, Japan
The Early Nutrition Academy supported a systematic review of human studies on the roles of pre- and postnatal long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) published from 2008 to 2013 and an expert workshop that reviewed the information and developed recommendations, considering particularly Asian populations. An increased supply of n-3 LC-PUFA during pregnancy reduces the risk of preterm birth before 34 weeks of gestation. Pregnant women should achieve an additional supply ≥200 mg docosahexaenic acid (DHA)/day, usually achieving a total intake ≥300 mg DHA/day. Higher intakes (600-800 mg DHA/day) may provide greater protection against early preterm birth. Some studies indicate beneficial effects of pre- and postnatal DHA supply on child neurodevelopment and allergy risk. Breast-feeding is the best choice for infants. Breast-feeding women should get ≥200 mg DHA/day to achieve a human milk DHA content of ∼0.3% fatty acids. Infant formula for term infants should contain DHA and arachidonic acid (AA) to provide 100 mg DHA/day and 140 mg AA/day. A supply of 100 mg DHA/day should continue during the second half of infancy. We do not provide quantitative advice on AA levels in follow-on formula fed after the introduction of complimentary feeding due to a lack of sufficient data and considerable variation in the AA amounts provided by complimentary foods. Reasonable intakes for very-low-birth weight infants are 18-60 mg/kg/day DHA and 18-45 mg/kg/day AA, while higher intakes (55-60 mg/kg/day DHA, ∼1% fatty acids; 35-45 mg/kg/day AA, ∼0.6-0.75%) appear preferable. Research on the requirements and effects of LC-PUFA during pregnancy, lactation, and early childhood should continue.