Preparation and Optimization of Macroalgae-Derived Solid Acid Catalysts
MetadataShow full item record
AuthorJiménez Toro, María Jesús
Solid acid catalystHydrothermal carbonizationBox-Behnken Design
Toro, M. J. J., Dou, X., Ajewole, I., Wang, J., Chong, K., Ai, N., ... & Chen, T. (2019). Preparation and optimization of macroalgae-derived solid acid catalysts. Waste and biomass valorization, 10(4), 805-816.
SponsorshipMJJ would like to acknowledge the support from Programme Erasmus Plus for Traineeships. NA thank the Zhejiang Provincial Natural Science Foundation of China (LY16B060014) and the Zhejiang ocean economic innovation achievements transformation and industrialization of development area demonstration projects (2015-83) for their finance support.
Solid acid catalysts were synthesized from macroalgae Sargassum horneri via hydrothermal carbonization followed by sulfuric acid sulfonation. A three-variable Box-Behnken design and optimization was used to maximize surface acidity. The optimal preparation conditions were found to be at the carbonization temperature of 217 °C, the carbonization time of 4.6 h and the sulfonation temperature of 108.5 °C. Under these conditions, the highest surface acidity achieved was 1.62 mmol g−1. Physical and chemical properties of prepared solid acid catalyst were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, and elemental analysis. The results proved the grafting of –SO3H groups on an amorphous carbon structure. The catalyst activity was evaluated by the esterification of oleic acid with methanol. The sample prepared achieved 96.6% esterification yield, which was higher than the 86.7% yield achieved by commercial Ambersyst-15 under the same reaction conditions.