Concentrations of bisphenol A and parabens in socks for infants and young children in Spain and their hormone-like activities
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AuthorFreire, Carmen; Molina-Molina, José-Manuel; Iribarne Durán, Luz María; Jiménez Díaz, Inmaculada; Vela-Soria, Fernando; Mustieles Miralles, Vicente; Arrebola, Juan Pedro; Fernández Cabrera, Mariana Fátima; Artacho-Cordón, Francisco; Olea Serrano, Nicolás
Bisphenol A (BPA)Dermal exposureParabensChildrenE-Screen
Freire, C., Molina-Molina, J. M., Iribarne-Durán, L. M., Jiménez-Díaz, I., Vela-Soria, F., Mustieles, V., ... & Olea, N. (2019). Concentrations of bisphenol A and parabens in socks for infants and young children in Spain and their hormone-like activities. Environment international, 127, 592-600.
SponsorshipThis research was funded in part by grants from the European Union Commission (The European Human Biomonitoring Initiative H2020-EJP-HBM4EU), the Spanish Ministry of Health (PI16/01820, PI16/01812, PI16/01858, PI17/01743, and PI17/01526), the Andalusia Regional Government (PI-0538-2017), and the Spanish Consortium for Research on Epidemiology and Public Health (CIBERESP). The authors are also grateful to the Carlos III Institute of Health (ISCIII) for the predoctoral research contract (FI17/00316) granted to L.M. Iribarne-Durán, the postdoctoral research contracts granted to F. Vela-Soria (Sara Borrell- CD17/00212) and C. Freire (Miguel Servet-FEDER fund MS16/00085), and the José María Segovia de Arana contract granted to N. Olea (INT18/00060), and to the Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation, and Universities for the Ramón y Cajal contract (RYC-2016-20155) granted to J.P. Arrebola.
Background: Little information is available on the content of bisphenol A (BPA) and other endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) such as parabens in infant textiles and clothes. Objectives: 1) To determine the concentrations of BPA and parabens in socks for infants and young children purchased in Spain, 2) to assess the (anti-)estrogenicity and (anti-)androgenicity of extracts from the socks, and 3) to estimate dermal exposure doses to these chemicals. Methods: Thirty-two pairs of socks for infants and young children (1–48 months) were purchased from 3 stores in Granada (Spain). Textile material was cut from the foot, toe, and leg of each sock (n=96 samples) for chemical analysis. Hormone-like activities were determined in foot sections (n=32 samples) by using the E-Screen assay for (anti-)estrogenicity and PALM luciferase assay for (anti-)androgenicity. Results: BPA was present in 90.6% of samples at concentrations ranging from<0.70 to 3736 ng/g. BPA levels were around 25-fold higher in socks from store 1, which had a higher cotton content compared to stores 2 and 3. Ethyl-paraben was found in 100% of samples, followed by methyl-paraben (81.0%), and propyl-paraben (43.7%). No butyl-paraben was detected in any sample. Estrogenic activity was detected in 83.3% of socks from store 1 (range=48.2–6051 pM E2eq/g) but in only three socks from stores 2 and 3. Anti-androgenic activity was detected in six of the 32 socks studied (range=94.4–2989 μM Proceq/g), all from store 1. Estimated dermal exposure to BPA was higher from socks for children aged 36–48 months (median=17.6 pg/kg/day), and dermal exposure to parabens was higher from socks for children aged 24–36 months (median=0.60 pg/kg/day). Discussion: This is the first report in Europe on the wide presence of BPA and parabens in socks marketed for infants and children. BPA appears to contribute to the hormone-like activity observed in sock extracts.