Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain
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AuthorArroyo-Manzanares, Natalia; Rodríguez Estévez, Vicente; Arenas Fernández, Plácido; García Campaña, Ana María; Gámiz Gracia, Laura
Liquid chromatographyFluorescence detectionMass spectrometrySolid-liquid extractionFeed
Arroyo-Manzanares, N., Rodríguez-Estévez, V., Arenas-Fernández, P., García-Campaña, A. M., & Gámiz-Gracia, L. (2019). Occurrence of Mycotoxins in Swine Feeding from Spain. Toxins, 11(6), 342.
SponsorshipThis research was funded by SPANISH MINISTRY OF ECONOMY AND COMPETITIVENESS and EUROPEAN REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT FUND (MINECO/FEDER, UE), grant number AGL2015-70708-R.
A survey including 228 pig feed samples from Spain has been developed, exploring the occurrence of 19 mycotoxins (aflatoxins B1, B2, G1 and G2, ochratoxin A, fumonisins B1 and B2, citrinin, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol, fusarenon X, sterigmatocystin, T-2 toxin, HT-2 toxin, enniatins A, A1, B and B2, and beauvericin). The samples were analysed by solid-liquid extraction followed by liquid chromatography coupled with fluorescence or mass spectrometry detection. Enniatin B was found in 100% of the samples (up to 1200 ug/kg) and beauvericin in more than 90%. Moreover, 40% of samples were contaminated with more than five mycotoxins. This high occurrence is insurmountable and surpasses all previous studies, probably due to the inclusion of emerging mycotoxins, scarcely explored. The majority of the samples (96.9%) were in accordance with EU regulations, which do not address emerging mycotoxins or co-occurrence. These results show that in order to ensure mycotoxin absence, emerging mycotoxins should always be considered.