Muscular Fitness Mediates the Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Children with Overweight/Obesity
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AuthorGil Cosano, José Juan; Gracia-Marco, Luis; Ubago Guisado, Esther; Migueles, Jairo H; Mora González, José Rafael; Escolano Margarit, María Victoria; Gómez Vida, José María; Maldonado Lozano, José; Ortega Porcel, Francisco Bartolomé
Vitamin DStrengthBone healthChildhood and youthObesity
Gil-Cosano, J. J., Gracia-Marco, L., Ubago-Guisado, E., Migueles, J. H., Mora-Gonzalez, J., Escolano-Margarit, M. V., ... & Ortega, F. B. (2019). Muscular Fitness Mediates the Association between 25-Hydroxyvitamin D and Areal Bone Mineral Density in Children with Overweight/Obesity. Nutrients, 11(11), 2760.
SponsorshipThis study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (Reference DEP2013-47540). This study takes place thanks to the additional funding from the University of Granada, UGR Research and Knowledge Transfer Fund (PPIT) 2016, Excellence actions: Units of Scientific Excellence; Scientific Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health (UCEES) and the European Regional Development Funds (ERDF, ref. SOMM17/6107/UGR). In addition, this study was further supported by the SAMID III network, RETICS, funded by the PN I+D+I 2017-2021 (Spain), ISCIII-Sub-Directorate General for Research Assessment and Promotion and the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF) (Ref. RD16/0022). L.G-M is supported by a fellowship from “la Caixa” Foundation (ID 100010434) and the fellowship code is LCF/BQ/PR19/11700007. J.H.M. and J.M.-G. are supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (FPU15/02645 and FPU14/06837, respectively).
The association between vitamin D [25(OH)D] and bone health has been widely studied in children. Given that 25(OH)D and bone health are associated with muscular fitness, this could be the cornerstone to understand this relationship. Hence, the purpose of this work was to examine if the relation between 25(OH)D and areal bone mineral density (aBMD) was mediated by muscular fitness in children with overweight/obesity. Eighty-one children (8-11 years, 53 boys) with overweight/obesity were included. Body composition was measured with dual energy X-ray Absorptiometry (DXA), 25(OH)D was measured in plasma samples and muscular fitness was assessed by handgrip and standing long jump tests (averaged z-scores were used to represent overall muscular fitness). Simple mediation analyses controlling for sex, years from peak height velocity, lean mass and season were carried out. Our results showed that muscular fitness z-score, handgrip strength and standing long jump acted as mediators in the relationship between 25(OH)D and aBMD outcomes (percentages of mediation ranged from 49.6% to 68.3%). In conclusion, muscular fitness mediates the association of 25(OH)D with aBMD in children with overweight/obesity. Therefore, 25(OH)D benefits to bone health could be dependent on muscular fitness in young ages.