Preterm birth and/or low birth weight are associated with periodontal disease and the increased placental immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory markers
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AuthorPozo, Elena; Mesa Aguado, Francisco Luis; Ikram, Mohamed H.; Puertas, Alberto; Torrecillas-Martínez, Laura; Ortega-Oller, Inmaculada; Magán Fernández, Antonio; Rodríguez-Martínez, María Dolores; Padial-Molina, Miguel; Sánchez Fernández, Elena; Galindo-Moreno, Pablo; O'Valle Ravassa, Francisco Javier
Universidad de Murcia
Cyclooxygenase 2ImmunohistochemistryPlacentaChronic periodontitisGingivitis
Pozo, Elena; et. al. Preterm birth and/or low birth weight are associated with periodontal disease and the increased placental immunohistochemical expression of inflammatory markers. Histol Histopathol (2016) 31: 231-237 [DOI: 10.14670/HH-11-671]
SponsorshipThis investigation was partially supported by Research Group #CTS-138 and #CTS-583 (Junta de Andalucía, Spain).
The objective of this study was to determine whether gynecological and periodontal clinical parameters and the immunohistochemical expression in placental chorionic villi of the markers cyclooxygenase- 2 (COX-2), interleukin (IL)-1β, vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 1 (VEGFR1), podoplanin, and Heat Shock Protein (HSP70) are associated with preterm birth (PB) and/or low birth weight (LBW) neonates. Material and methods: An observational casecontrol study was performed in 130 puerperal women: mothers of PB/LBW neonates (cases, n=65) and mothers of full-term normal-weight neonates (controls, n=65). Data were gathered from all participants on sociodemographic, gynecological, and periodontal variables and on placental immunohistochemical COX-2, IL-1β, VEGFR1, podoplanin, and HSP70 expression. Results: Among the 42 women with mild/moderate periodontitis or gingivitis, the studied periodontal variables were significantly worse and the placental COX-2 (p=0.043), HSP70 (p=0.001), IL-1β (p=0.001), VEGFR1 (p=0.032), and podoplanin (p=0.058) expressions were significantly higher in the cases than in the controls. In comparison to the mothers without periodontitis, only COX-2 (p=0.026) and VEGFR1 (p=0.005) expressions were significantly increased in those with the disease. Increased COX-2 values were detected in the women with a history of genitourinary infection (p=0.036), premature rupture of membrane (p=0.012), or drug treatment (p=0.050). Conclusions: The etiology of preterm birth and/or low birth weight is multifactorial and involves consumption habits, social-health factors, and infectious episodes. These adverse pregnancy outcomes were associated with periodontitis and the increased placental expression of IL-1β, COX-2, VEGFR1, and HSP70.