Maternal seafood intake and the risk of small for gestational age newborns: a case–control study in Spanish women
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AuthorAmezcua Prieto, María Del Carmen; Martínez Galiano, Juan Miguel; Salcedo Bellido, Inmaculada; Olmedo Requena, María Rocío; Bueno Cavanillas, Aurora; Delgado Rodríguez, Miguel
Amezcua-Prieto C, Martínez-Galiano JM, Salcedo- Bellido I, et al. Maternal seafood intake and the risk of small for gestational age newborns: a case–control study in Spanish women. BMJ Open 2018;8:e020424.
SponsorshipThe National Institute of Health Carlos III (PI11/02199) supported this work.
Objective To investigate the relationship between seafood consumption during pregnancy and the risk of delivering a small for gestational age (SGA) newborn. Design This case–control study included women with SGA newborns and controls matched 1:1 for maternal age (±2 years) and hospital. Setting Five hospitals in Eastern Andalusia, Spain. Participants 518 pairs of pregnant Spanish women. The SGA group included women who delivered SGA newborns: SGA was defined as a birth weight below the 10th percentile of infants at a given gestational age. Controls were women who delivered newborns with adequate birth weights. Interventions We collected data on demographic characteristics, socioeconomic status, toxic habits and diet. Midwives administered a 137-item Food Frequency Questionnaire. Outcome measures We calculated quintiles of seafood intake and applied conditional logistic regression to estimate ORs and 95% CIs. Results Shellfish intake more than once/week yielded a significant protective effect against an SGA newborn (OR 0.25, 95% CI 0.08 to 0.76, after adjusting for energy, educational level, smoking, prepregnancy body mass index, weight and a history of preterm or low birthweight newborn). The risk of an SGA newborn was lower among women who consumed >29 g/day fish compared with women who consumed ≤8 g (adjusted OR 0.63, 95% CI 0.41 to 0.98; p=0.025 for a trend). Similarly, the risk of an SGA newborn was lower among women who consumed >1 g/day of marine n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids compared with those who consumed ≤0.4 g/day (adjusted OR 0.58, 95% CI 0.38 to 0.90; p=0.025 for a trend). Conclusion An average seafood intake of at least 29 g/ day during pregnancy, equivalent to 2–3 servings/week, reduced the risk of an SGA newborn, compared with an average seafood intake of less than 8 g/day.