Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins
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AuthorCádiz-Gurrea, María de la Luz; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Lozano Sánchez, Jesús; Joven, Jorge; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Segura Carretero, Antonio
Vitis vinifera seedByproductTheobroma cacaoHPLC-ESI-QTOF-MSPolyphenolsProanthocyandinsAntioxidant activityAnti-inflammatory activity
Cádiz-Gurrea, M.L.; et al. Cocoa and Grape Seed Byproducts as a Source of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Proanthocyanidins. International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 18(2): 376 (2017). [http://hdl.handle.net/10481/49152]
SponsorshipThis work was supported by the project AGL2011-29857-C03-02 and BFU2014-52433-C3-2-R (Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation), as well as P10-FQM-6563 and P11-CTS-7625 (Andalusian Regional Government Council of Innovation and Science). The author Isabel Borrás Linares acknowledges financial support from the Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) and the European Social Fund (FSE) for the contract PTQ-13-06429. Authors are also grateful to the Universitat Rovira I Virgili for the Martí I Franquès Grant 2016PMF-POST-02 awarded to Salvador Fernández-Arroyo.
Phenolic compounds, which are secondary plant metabolites, are considered an integral part of the human diet. Physiological properties of dietary polyphenols have come to the attention in recent years. Especially, proanthocyanidins (ranging from dimers to decamers) have demonstrated potential interactions with biological systems, such as antiviral, antibacterial, molluscicidal, enzyme-inhibiting, antioxidant, and radical-scavenging properties. Agroindustry produces a considerable amount of phenolic-rich sources, and the ability of polyphenolic structures to interacts with other molecules in living organisms confers their beneficial properties. Cocoa wastes and grape seeds and skin byproducts are a source of several phenolic compounds, particularly mono-, oligo-, and polymeric proanthocyanidins. The aim of this work is to compare the phenolic composition of Theobroma cacao and Vitis vinifera grape seed extracts by high pressure liquid chromatography coupled to a quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer and equipped with an electrospray ionization interface (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) and its phenolic quantitation in order to evaluate the proanthocyanidin profile. The antioxidant capacity was measured by different methods, including electron transfer and hydrogen atom transfer-based mechanisms, and total phenolic and flavan-3-ol contents were carried out by Folin–Ciocalteu and Vanillin assays. In addition, to assess the anti-inflammatory capacity, the expression of MCP-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells was measured.