Cutaneous/Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis Treatment for Wound Healing: Classical versus New Treatment Approaches
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Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL)Mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML)Topical formulationsDrug deliveryNanomaterials
Severino, P... [et al.]. Cutaneous/Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis Treatment forWound Healing: Classical versus New Treatment Approaches. Microbiol. Res. 2022, 13, 836–852. [https://doi.org/10.3390/microbiolres13040059]
PatrocinadorCoordenacao de Aperfeicoamento de Pessoal de Nivel Superior (CAPES); Fundacao de Amparo a Pesquisa do Estado do Sergipe (FAPITEC) 88887.159533/2017-00; Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Cientifico e Tecnologico (CNPQ) CNPq 301964/2019-0 01/2019 06/2019; Fundacao Carolina
Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) and mucocutaneous leishmaniasis (ML) show clinical spectra that can range from a localized lesion (with a spontaneous healing process) to cases that progress to a generalized systemic disease with a risk of death. The treatment of leishmaniasis is complex since most of the available drugs show high toxicity. The development of an effective topical drug formulation for CL and ML treatment offers advantages as it will improve patient’s compliance to the therapy given the possibility for self-administration, as well as overcoming the first pass metabolism and the high costs of currently available alternatives. The most common dosage forms include solid formulations, such as membranes and semi-solid formulations (e.g., ointments, creams, gels, and pastes). Topical treatment has been used as a new route of administration for conventional drugs against leishmaniasis and its combinations, as well as to exploit new substances. In this review, we discuss the advantages and limitations of using topical drug delivery for the treatment of these two forms of leishmaniasis and the relevance of combining this approach with other pharmaceutical dosage forms. Emphasis will also be given to the use of nanomaterials for site-specific delivery.