Recommendations for Determining the Validity of Consumer Wearables and Smartphones for the Estimation of Energy Expenditure: Expert Statement and Checklist of the INTERLIVE Network
MetadataShow full item record
Argent, R... [et al.]. Recommendations for Determining the Validity of Consumer Wearables and Smartphones for the Estimation of Energy Expenditure: Expert Statement and Checklist of the INTERLIVE Network. Sports Med (2022). [https://doi.org/10.1007/s40279-022-01665-4]
SponsorshipIReL Consortium; Huawei Technologies; Science Foundation Ireland; European Commission 12/RC/2289_P2; Spanish Government DEP2016-79512-R; University of Granada, Plan Propio de Investigacion 2016, Excellence actions: Units of Excellence; Scientific Excellence Unit on Exercise and Health (UCEES); Junta de Andalucia; European Commission SOMM17/6107/UGR; Research Council of Norway 249932/F20; European Research Council (ERC) 716657
Background Consumer wearables and smartphone devices commonly offer an estimate of energy expenditure (EE) to assist in the objective monitoring of physical activity to the general population. Alongside consumers, healthcare professionals and researchers are seeking to utilise these devices for the monitoring of training and improving human health. However, the methods of validation and reporting of EE estimation in these devices lacks rigour, negatively impacting on the ability to make comparisons between devices and provide transparent accuracy. Objectives The Towards Intelligent Health and Well-Being Network of Physical Activity Assessment (INTERLIVE) is a joint European initiative of six universities and one industrial partner. The network was founded in 2019 and strives towards developing best-practice recommendations for evaluating the validity of consumer wearables and smartphones. This expert statement presents a best-practice validation protocol for consumer wearables and smartphones in the estimation of EE. Methods The recommendations were developed through (1) a systematic literature review; (2) an unstructured review of the wider literature discussing the potential factors that may introduce bias during validation studies; and (3) evidence-informed expert opinions from members of the INTERLIVE network. Results The systematic literature review process identified 1645 potential articles, of which 62 were deemed eligible for the final dataset. Based on these studies and the wider literature search, a validation framework is proposed encompassing six key domains for validation: the target population, criterion measure, index measure, testing conditions, data processing and the statistical analysis. Conclusions The INTERLIVE network recommends that the proposed protocol, and checklists provided, are used to standardise the testing and reporting of the validation of any consumer wearable or smartphone device to estimate EE. This in turn will maximise the potential utility of these technologies for clinicians, researchers, consumers, and manufacturers/ developers, while ensuring transparency, comparability, and replicability in validation.