Effectiveness of a medication adherence management intervention in a community pharmacy setting: a cluster randomised controlled trial
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AuthorTorres Robles, Andrea; Benrimoj, Shalom Isaac; Gastelurrutia Garralda, Miguel Ángel; Martínez Martínez, Fernando; Pérez Escamilla, Beatriz; Valverde Merino, María Isabel
Torres-Robles A... [et al.]. Effectiveness of a medication adherence management intervention in a community pharmacy setting: a cluster randomised controlled trialBMJ Quality & Safety 2022;31:105-115. doi:[10.1136/bmjqs-2020-011671]
Background Non-adherence to medications continues to be a burden worldwide, with significant negative consequences. Community pharmacist interventions seem to be effective at improving medication adherence. However, more evidence is needed regarding their impact on disease-specific outcomes. The aim was to evaluate the impact of a community pharmacist-led adherence management intervention on adherence and clinical outcomes in patients with hypertension, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Methods A 6-month cluster randomised controlled trial was conducted in Spanish community pharmacies. Patients suffering from hypertension, asthma and COPD were recruited. Patients in the intervention group received a medication adherence management intervention and the control group received usual care. The intervention was based on theoretical frameworks for changing patient behaviour. Medication adherence, disease-specific outcomes (Asthma Control Questionnaire (ACQ) scores, Clinical COPD Questionnaire (CCQ) scores and blood pressure levels) and disease control were evaluated. A multilevel regression model was used to analyse the data. Results Ninety-eight pharmacies and 1186 patients were recruited, with 1038 patients completing the study. Patients receiving the intervention had an OR of 5.12 (95% CI 3.20 to 8.20, p<0.05) of being adherent after the 6 months. At the end of the study, patients in the intervention group had lower diastolic blood pressure levels (mean difference (MD) −2.88, 95% CI −5.33 to −0.43, p=0.02), lower CCQ scores (MD −0.50, 95% CI −0.82 to −0.18, p<0.05) and lower ACQ scores (MD −0.28, 95% CI −0.56 to 0.00, p<0.05) when compared with the control group. Conclusions A community pharmacist-led medication adherence intervention was effective at improving medication adherence and clinical outcomes in patients suffering from hypertension, asthma and COPD. Future research should explore the implementation of these interventions in routine practice.