Influence of Nutrition, Food and Diet-Related Interventions in the Workplace: A Meta-Analysis with Meta-Regression
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AuthorMelián Fleitas, Liliana
DietFoodNutritionOccupational healthWorking conditionsWorkplaceObesityOverweightOccupational health policy
Melián-Fleitas, L... [et al.]. Influence of Nutrition, Food and Diet-Related Interventions in theWorkplace: A Meta-Analysis with Meta-Regression. Nutrients 2021, 13, 3945. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13113945]
Objective: To review the scientific literature on the influence of verified nutrition, food and diet interventions on occupational health. Method: This study involved a critical analysis of articles retrieved from MEDLINE (via PubMed), Embase, Cochrane Library, PsycINFO, Scopus, Web of Science, Latin American and Caribbean Health Sciences Literature (LILACS) and Medicina en Español (MEDES) using the descriptors “Diet, Food, and Nutrition” and “Occupational Health” and applying the filters “Clinical Trial”, “Humans” and “Adult: 19+ years”; the search was conducted on 29 May 2021. Results: A total of 401 references were retrieved from the bibliographic databases, with an additional 16 identified through a secondary search; among the studies retrieved, 34 clinical trials were selected after applying the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The interventions were grouped into seven categories: (1) dietary interventions associated with exercise or educational programs; (2) individual environmental interventions or other educational actions; (3) educational interventions oriented toward lifestyle, dietetics, physical activity and stress management; (4) economic incentives; (5) multicomponent interventions (combination of mindfulness, e-coaching and the addition of fruits and vegetables); or dietary interventions (facilitating greater food supply in cafeterias); or interventions focused on physical exercise. Conclusions: Given that most people spend a large part of their time in the workplace and, therefore, eat at least one of their daily meals there, well-planned interventions—preferably including several strategies—have been demonstrated, in general, as useful for combating overweight and obesity. From the meta-regression study, it was observed that the interventions give better results in people who presented high Body Mass Index (BMI) values (obesity). In contrast, intervention 2 (interventions related to workplace environment) would not give the expected results (it would increase the BMI).