Animal Models of Coenzyme Q Deficiency: Mechanistic and Translational Learnings
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AuthorGonzález García, Pilar; Barriocanal Casado, Eliana; Díaz Casado, María Elena; López Herrador, Sergio; Hidalgo Gutiérrez, Agustín; López García, Luis Carlos
MitochondriaMitochondrial diseaseOxidative stressPathomechanismsPreclinical modelsSulfide metabolismTherapy
González-García, P.; Barriocanal-Casado, E.; Díaz-Casado, M.E.; López-Herrador, S.; Hidalgo-Gutiérrez, A.; López, L.C. Animal Models of Coenzyme Q Deficiency: Mechanistic and Translational Learnings. Antioxidants 2021, 10, 1687. [https://doi.org/10.3390/antiox10111687]
SponsorshipConsejería de Salud, Junta de Andalucía; Ministerio de Universidades, Spain; Muscular Dystrophy Association MDA-602322; Universidad de Granada; European Regional Development Fund RTI2018-093503-B-100; Junta de Andalucía P20_00134
Coenzyme Q (CoQ) is a vital lipophilic molecule that is endogenously synthesized in the mitochondria of each cell. The CoQ biosynthetic pathway is complex and not completely characterized, and it involves at least thirteen catalytic and regulatory proteins. Once it is synthesized, CoQ exerts a wide variety of mitochondrial and extramitochondrial functions thank to its redox capacity and its lipophilicity. Thus, low levels of CoQ cause diseases with heterogeneous clinical symptoms, which are not always understood. The decreased levels of CoQ may be primary caused by defects in the CoQ biosynthetic pathway or secondarily associated with other diseases. In both cases, the pathomechanisms are related to the CoQ functions, although further experimental evidence is required to establish this association. The conventional treatment for CoQ deficiencies is the high doses of oral CoQ10 supplementation, but this therapy is not effective for some specific clinical presentations, especially in those involving the nervous system. To better understand the CoQ biosynthetic pathway, the biological functions linked to CoQ and the pathomechanisms of CoQ deficiencies, and to improve the therapeutic outcomes of this syndrome, a variety of animal models have been generated and characterized in the last decade. In this review, we show all the animal models available, remarking on the most important outcomes that each model has provided. Finally, we also comment some gaps and future research directions related to CoQ metabolism and how the current and novel animal models may help in the development of future research studies.