Exposure to metals and metalloids among pregnant women from Spain: Levels and associated factors
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MetalsMetalloidsPrenatal exposureEnvironmental exposureDiet
Manuel Lozano... [et al.]. Exposure to metals and metalloids among pregnant women from Spain: Levels and associated factors, Chemosphere, Volume 286, Part 2, 2022, 131809, ISSN 0045-6535, [https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131809]
SponsorshipEuropean Commission 282957 HEALTH.2010.2.4.5-1; Spain: ISCIII Red INMA G03/176 CB06/02/0041 CIBERESP; Generalitat Valenciana: FISABIO UGP 15-230 UGP-15-244 UGP-15-249 AICO/2020/285; Alicia Koplowitz Foundation; Generalitat de Catalunya; General Electric CIRIT 1999SGR 00241; Department of Health of the Basque Government 2005111093 2009111069 2013111089 2015111065; Provincial Government of Gipuzkoa DFG06/002 DFG08/001 DFG15/221; Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities CEX2018000806-S; Generalitat de Catalunya; General Electric; Spain (FIS-FEDER) PI03/1615 PI04/1509 PI04/1112 PI04/1931 PI05/1079 PI05/1052 PI06/0867 PI06/1213 PI07/0314 PI09/00090 PI09/02647 PI11/01007 PI11/02591 PI11/02038 PI13/1944 PI13/2032 PI13/02187; Spain (Miguel Servet FEDER) MS15/00025 MS20/0006 CPII16/00051; Spain (FIS-FSE) 17/00260; the Spain (FIS-FEDER) PI14/00891 PI14/01687 PI16/1288 PI17/00663 PI18/01142 PI19/1338
Background: Humans are regularly exposed to metals and metalloids present in air, water, food, soil and domestic materials. Most of them can cross the placental barrier and cause adverse impacts on the developing foetus. Objectives: To describe the prenatal concentrations of metals and metalloids and to study the associated sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors in pregnant Spanish women. Methods: Subjects were 1346 pregnant women of the INMA Project, for whom the following metals arsenic (As), cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), molybdenum (Mo), nickel (Ni), lead (Pb), antimony (Sb), selenium (Se), thallium (Tl) and zinc (Zn) were determined in urine, at both the first and the third trimesters of gestation. Sociodemographic, dietary and environmental information was collected through questionnaires during pregnancy. Multiple linear mixed models were built in order to study the association between each metal and metalloid concentrations and the sociodemographic, environmental and dietary factors. Results: The most detected compounds were As, Co, Mo, Sb, Se and Zn at both trimesters. Zn was the element found in the highest concentrations at both trimesters and Tl was detected in the lowest concentrations. We observed significant associations between As, Cd, Cu, Sb, Tl and Zn concentrations and working situation, social class and age. Seafood, meat, fruits, nuts, vegetables and alcohol intake affected the levels of all the metals but Cd and Cu. Proximity to industrial areas, fields and air pollution were related to all metals except Cd, Sb and Se. Conclusions: This is the first large prospective longitudinal study on the exposure to metals and metalloids during pregnancy and associated factors to include several cohorts in Spain. The present study shows that some modifiable lifestyles, food intakes and environmental factors could be associated with prenatal exposure to metal (loid)s, which may be considered in further studies to assess their relationship with neonatal health outcomes.