Association of Diet, Physical Activity Guidelines and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Children
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AuthorGil-Campos, Mercedes; Pérez Ferreirós, Alexandra; Llorente Cantarero, Francisco Jesús; Anguita Ruiz, Augusto; Bedoya Carpente, Juan José; Kalén, Anton; Moreno Aznar, Luis A.; Bueno, Gloria; Gil Hernández, Ángel; Aguilera García, Concepción María; Leis, Rosaura
Abdominal adiposityCardiovascular diseasesChildChild nutrition sciencesDietExerciseMetabolic syndromeMetabolismObesityPediatric obesity
Gil-Campos, M.; Pérez-Ferreirós, A.; Llorente-Cantarero, F.J.; Anguita-Ruiz, A.; Bedoya-Carpente, J.J.; Kalén, A.; Moreno, L.A.; Bueno, G.; Gil, Á.; Aguilera, C.M.; et al. Association of Diet, Physical Activity Guidelines and Cardiometabolic Risk Markers in Children. Nutrients 2021, 13, 2954. https://doi.org/10.3390/ nu13092954
SponsorshipPlan Nacional de Investigación Científica, Desarrollo e Innovación Tecnológica (I + D + I), Instituto de Salud Carlos III-Health Research Funding (FONDOS FEDER) (PI05/1968, PI11/01425, PI11/02042, PI11/02059, PI16/01301, PI16/01205 and PI1600871); CIBEROBN Network (CB15/00131, CB15/00043); Plan Propio de la Universidad de Granada with a Sabatical Program 2020–2021
The aim was to identify different dietary and physical activity (PA) patterns in 5- to 14-year-old children with a high prevalence of overweight and obesity using cluster analysis based on their adherence to the Spanish Society of Community Nutrition dietary guidelines and levels of PA, and to determine their associations with age, sex, body composition, and cardiometabolic risk markers. In 549 children, hierarchical cluster analysis was used to identify subgroups with similar adherence to dietary recommendations and level of PA. Three clusters were identified: Cluster 1, with the lowest level of vigorous PA and adherence to dietary recommendations; Cluster 2, with the lowest levels of moderate and vigorous PA and the highest adherence to dietary recommendations; and Cluster 3, with the highest level of PA, especially vigorous PA and a medium level adherence to dietary recommendations. Cluster 3 had lower total body fat and higher lean body mass percentages than Cluster 2. Cluster 2 had lower high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and higher low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels than Cluster 1. The results from our study suggest that it is important to consider adherence to PA recommendations together with adherence to dietary guidelines to understand patterns of obesogenic habits in pediatric populations with high prevalence of overweight and obesity.