Psychosocial and Diet-Related Lifestyle Clusters in Overweight and Obesity
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AuthorGodoy Izquierdo, Débora; Lara, Raquel; Ogallar Blanco, Adelaida Irene; Rodríguez Tadeo, Alejandra; Ramírez, María J.; Navarrón Vallejo, Estefanía; Arbinaga, Félix
Body imageHealthy dietWeight-related stigmaSubjective well beingExcessive weightCluster analysis
Godoy-Izquierdo, D.; Lara, R.; Ogallar, A.; Rodríguez-Tadeo, A.; Ramírez, M.J.; Navarrón, E.; Arbinaga, F. Psychosocial and Diet-Related Lifestyle Clusters in Overweight and Obesity. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 6461. https://doi.org/10.3390/ ijerph18126461
Sponsorship“Psicología de la Salud/Medicina Conductual” Research Group (CTS-267); “Psicología del Ejercicio, el Deporte y la Salud” Research Group (CTS-980) by the Junta de Andalucía (Spain); Research Project “Quality of life and body image in adults with obesity” (PIVA Projects, Ref. ICB2) by the Universidad Autónoma Ciudad Juárez (Mexico)
This study explored intraindividual multidimensional profiles integrating psychosocial factors, namely, body image and satisfaction, weight-related self-stigma, positivity, and happiness, and behavioural-lifestyle factors, namely, adherence to a healthy diet, among Spanish adults with overweight or obesity. We further aimed to investigate the association of excess weight (i.e., measured body mass index, BMI) with the abovementioned multidimensional configurations. A convenience sample of 100 adult individuals (60% females) with excessive weight (69% overweight; 31% obesity) was recruited. They completed self-reports regarding the study variables, and their weight and height were measured. With a perspective centered on the individual, a cluster analysis was performed. Three distinct intraindividual psychosocial and diet-related profiles were identified: a group of healthy individuals with excess weight (46%); a group of individuals who were negatively affected by their excessive weight and showed the most distressed profile (18%); and a group of dysfunctional individuals who seemed to be excessively unrealistic and optimistic regarding their excessive weight and unhealthy lifestyles, but were troubled by their weight (36%). Furthermore, individuals in the affected cluster had higher obesity (mean BMI ± SD = 32.1 ± 3.7) than those in the clusters of healthy (28.0 ± 3.0) and dysfunctional individuals (28.1 ± 3.3) (p < 0.05). The results showed that there are specific psychosocial and lifestyle profiles in the adult population with excess weight and that there are relationships among psychological, behavioural, and body-composition factors. For clinical application purposes, it is important to account for the heterogeneity within individuals who are obese and to individualize the interventions, with a focus from weight change to the individual’s overall well-being.