Nanomedicine to Overcome Multidrug Resistance Mechanisms in Colon and Pancreatic Cancer: Recent Progress
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AuthorMelguizo Alonso, Consolación; Ortiz Quesada, Raúl; Quiñonero, Francisco; García Pinel, Beatriz; Fuel, Marco; Mesas, Cristina; Cabeza Montilla, Laura; Prados Salazar, José Carlos
Drug resistanceColon cancerPancreatic cancerNanomedicineCancer stem cellsPARPmiRNAsTumor Microenvironment
Ortíz, R.; Quiñonero, F.; García-Pinel, B.; Fuel, M.; Mesas, C.; Cabeza, L.; Melguizo, C.; Prados, J. Nanomedicine to Overcome Multidrug Resistance Mechanisms in Colon and Pancreatic Cancer: Recent Progress. Cancers 2021, 13, 2058. https://doi.org/ 10.3390/cancers13092058
SponsorshipConsejería de Salud de la Junta de Andalucía (projects PI-0102-2017 and P18-HO-3882); CTS-107 Group; Instituto de Salud Carlos III (ISCIII) (Project PI19/01478) (FEDER)
The development of drug resistance is one of the main causes of cancer treatment failure. This phenomenon occurs very frequently in different types of cancer, including colon and pancreatic cancers. However, the underlying molecular mechanisms are not fully understood. In recent years, nanomedicine has improved the delivery and efficacy of drugs, and has decreased their side effects. In addition, it has allowed to design drugs capable of avoiding certain resistance mechanisms of tumors. In this article, we review the main resistance mechanisms in colon and pancreatic cancers, along with the most relevant strategies offered by nanodrugs to overcome this obstacle. These strategies include the inhibition of efflux pumps, the use of specific targets, the development of nanomedicines affecting the environment of cancer-specific tissues, the modulation of DNA repair mechanisms or RNA (miRNA), and specific approaches to damage cancer stem cells, among others. This review aims to illustrate how advanced nanoformulations, including polymeric conjugates, micelles, dendrimers, liposomes, metallic and carbon-based nanoparticles, are allowing to overcome one of the main limitations in the treatment of colon and pancreatic cancers. The future development of nanomedicine opens new horizons for cancer treatment.