Deciphering the constrained total energy expenditure model in humans by associating accelerometer‑measured physical activity from wrist and hip
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AuthorFernández‑Verdejo, Rodrigo; Alcántara Alcántara, Juan Manuel; Galgani, José E.; Acosta Manzano, Francisco Miguel; Migueles, Jairo H; Amaro Gahete, Francisco José; Labayen, Idoia; Ortega Porcel, Francisco Bartolomé; Ruiz Ruiz, Jonatan
Fernández-Verdejo, R., Alcantara, J.M.A., Galgani, J.E. et al. Deciphering the constrained total energy expenditure model in humans by associating accelerometer-measured physical activity from wrist and hip. Sci Rep 11, 12302 (2021). [https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-91750-x]
SponsorshipAstraZeneca HealthCare Foundation PTA 12264-I; EXERNET Research Network on Exercise and Health in Special Populations DEP2005-00046/ACTI; Fundación Iberoamericana de Nutrición; Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico 11180361 FONDECYT; Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad MINECO; Instituto de Salud Carlos III PI13/01393 ISCIII; Universidad de Granada UGR; European Regional Development Fund RD16/0022,SOMM17/6107/UGR ERDF; Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidad, Junta de Andalucía; Vicerrectorado de Investigación y Transferencia, Universidad de Granada Health [UCEES]),Plan Propio de Investigación 2016 (Excellence actions: Unit of Excellence on Exercise,Plan Propio de Investigación 2019 (Programa Contratos-Puente)
The constrained total energy expenditure (TEE) model posits that progressive increases in physical activity (PA) lead to increases in TEE; but after certain PA threshold, TEE plateaus. Then, a compensatory reduction in the expenditure of non-essential activities constrains the TEE. We hypothesized that high PA levels as locomotion associate with a compensatory attenuation in arm movements. We included 209 adults (64% females, mean [SD] age 32.1 [15.0] years) and 105 children (40% females, age 10.0 [1.1] years). Subjects wore, simultaneously, one accelerometer in the non-dominant wrist and another in the hip for ≥ 4 days. We analyzed the association between wrist-measured (arm movements plus locomotion) and hip-measured PA (locomotion). We also analyzed how the capacity to dissociate arm movements from locomotion influences total PA. In adults, the association between wrist-measured and hip-measured PA was better described by a quadratic than a linear model (Quadratic-R2 = 0.54 vs. Linear-R2 = 0.52; P = 0.003). Above the 80th percentile of hip-measured PA, wrist-measured PA plateaued. In children, there was no evidence that a quadratic model fitted the association between wrist-measured and hip-measured PA better than a linear model (R2 = 0.58 in both models, P = 0.25). In adults and children, those with the highest capacity to dissociate arm movements from locomotion—i.e. higher arm movements for a given locomotion—reached the highest total PA. We conclude that, in adults, elevated locomotion associates with a compensatory reduction in arm movements (probably non-essential fidgeting) that partially explains the constrained TEE model. Subjects with the lowest arm compensation reach the highest total PA.