Doctors and Nurses: A Systematic Review of the Risk and Protective Factors in Workplace Violence and Burnout
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BurnoutWorkplace violenceProtective factorsRisk factors
Giménez Lozano, J.M.; Martínez Ramón, J.P.; Morales Rodríguez, F.M. Doctors and Nurses: A Systematic Review of the Risk and Protective Factors in Workplace Violence and Burnout. Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2021, 18, 3280. [https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18063280]
The present study aims analyze the risk factors that lead to high levels of burnout among nurses and physicians and the protective factors that prevent them. Thus, it is also intended to explore the possible correlation between physical and verbal violence produced at work and the symptoms derived from burnout. Methods: The search was carried out on the Scopus, PubMed and Web of Science databases between 2000 and 2019 (on which date the bibliographic search ends). Descriptive studies estimating the prevalence of workplace violence and risk and protective factors and burnout were included. An adapted version of the Downs and Black quality checklist was used for article selection. 89.6 percent of the studies analysed were in the health sector. There is a significant correlation between burnout symptoms and physical violence at work. On the one hand, the risk factors that moderate this correlation were of structural/organisational type (social support, quality of the working environment, authoritarian leadership, little autonomy or long working days, etc.) and personal type (age, gender, nationality or academic degree, etc.). On the other hand, protective factors were the quality of the working environment, mutual support networks or coping strategies. The results were analysed in-depth and intervention strategies were proposed.