Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations
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AutorBosson, Jennifer K.; Lemus Martín, Soledad De; Moreno Bella, Eva; Zapata Calvente, Antonella Ludmila
Psychometric isomorphismPrecarious manhood beliefsAmbivalent sexismAmbivalence toward men
Publisher version: Bosson JK, Jurek P, Vandello JA, et al. Psychometric Properties and Correlates of Precarious Manhood Beliefs in 62 Nations. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology. March 2021. [10.1177/0022022121997997]
PatrocinadorNational Science Center, Poland 2017/26/M/HS6/00360; United States Department of Health & Human Services National Institutes of Health (NIH) - USA NIH National Institute of General Medical Sciences (NIGMS) RL5GM118963; Universidad Nacional de Educacion a Distancia, Spain RTI2018-093550-B-I00; Grant Agency of the Czech Republic 20-01214S; Institute of Psychology, Czech Academy of Sciences RVO: 68081740; UK Research & Innovation (UKRI) Economic & Social Research Council (ESRC) ES/S00274X/1; Spanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness PSI2016-79971-P; European Research Council (ERC) European Commission ERC-2016-COG 725128; Swedish Research Council Swedish Research Council for Health Working Life & Welfare (Forte) 2017-00414; University of Brasilia 04/2019
Precarious manhood beliefs portray manhood, relative to womanhood, as a social status that is hard to earn, easy to lose, and proven via public action. Whereas qualitative and ethnographic data suggest that many cultures conceptualize manhood as precarious, quantitative research has yet to demonstrate the cross-cultural consistency of precarious manhood beliefs. Here, we examined the psychometric isomorphism, or measurement invariance, of a brief precarious manhood beliefs scale (the PMB). Using data from university samples in 62 countries across 13 world regions (N=33,417), we examined: (1) the isomorphism of the PMB across individual and country levels; (2) the PMB’s distinctness from, and associations with, other cross-culturally validated gender ideologies (e.g., ambivalent sexism and ambivalence toward men; Glick & Fiske, 1996, 1999); and (3) associations of the PMB with country-level indices of gender equality (the GGGI; World Economic Forum, 2019) and human development (the HDI; United Nations Development Programme, 2019). Findings indicate that the PMB is a psychometrically valid and isomorphic index of beliefs about the male gender role that accounts for unique variance in country-level gender equality and human development.