Caloric restriction, physical exercise, and CB1 receptor blockade as an efficient combined strategy for bodyweight control and cardiometabolic status improvement in male rats
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AuthorLópez Trinidad, Luisa M.; Martínez Martínez, Rosario; Kapravelou, Garyfallia; Aranda Ramírez, Pilar; Porres Foulquie, Jesús María; López-Jurado Romero De La Cruz, María
Trinidad, L. M. L., Martinez, R., Kapravelou, G., Galisteo, M., Aranda, P., Porres, J. M., & Lopez-Jurado, M. (2021). Caloric restriction, physical exercise, and CB1 receptor blockade as an efficient combined strategy for bodyweight control and cardiometabolic status improvement in male rats. Scientific Reports, 11(1), 1-16. [https://doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-83709-9]
SponsorshipSpanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities; European Commission DEP2014-58296-R RTC-2017-6540-1 RTI2018-100934-B-I00; European Commission
Obesity is critically associated with the development of insulin resistance and related cardiovascular and kidney diseases. Several strategies for weight loss have been developed but most of them exhibit a post-intervention rebound effect. Here, we aimed to design combined weight-loss strategies of caloric restriction, physical exercise, and administration of a CB1 receptor blocker to inhibit food intake that also accomplish the objectives of lost-weight maintenance and improvement of cardiovascular and renal function. Diet-induced obesity (DIO) was generated in Sprague Dawley rats for 12 weeks to test the effects of single or combined strategies (i.e. caloric restriction, mixed training protocol, and/or administration of appetite suppressant) on caloric intake, body weight, cardiovascular and renal functionality resulting from a weight-loss intervention period of 3 weeks followed by 6 weeks of weight maintenance. Consumption of a high-fat diet (HFD) caused a significant increase in body weight (5th week of the experimental period) and led to the development of insulin resistance, cardiovascular, and renal alterations. The different interventions tested, resulted in a significant body weight loss and improved glucose metabolism, aerobic capacity, electrocardiographic parameters, vascular expression of adhesion molecules and inflammatory mediators, and renal functionality, reaching values similar to the control normocaloric group or even improving them. Successful maintenance of lost weight was achieved along a 6-week maintenance period in addition to adequate health status. In conclusion, the weight-loss and maintenance intervention strategies tested were efficient at reversing the obesity-related alterations in body weight, glucose metabolism, aerobic capacity, cardiovascular and renal functionality. The beneficial action was very consistent for caloric restriction and physical exercise, whereas administration of a CB1 receptor blocker complemented the effects of the prior interventions in some parameters like body weight or aerobic capacity, and showed specific actions in renal status, increasing glomerular filtration rate and diuresis. Overall, the novelty of our study relies on the easy implementation of combined strategies for effective weight management that resulted in significant health benefits.