Nutritional and Functional Advantages of the Use of Fermented Black Chickpea Flour for Semolina-Pasta Fortification
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Black chickpeaPastaLactic acid bacteriaFermentationPhenolic compounds
De Pasquale, I.; Verni, M.; Verardo, V.; Gómez-Caravaca, A.M.; Rizzello, C.G. Nutritional and Functional Advantages of the Use of Fermented Black Chickpea Flour for Semolina-Pasta Fortification. Foods 2021, 10, 182. [https://doi.org/10.3390/foods10010182]
SponsorshipSpanish Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (MINECO) RYC-2015-18795
Pasta represents a dominant portion of the diet worldwide and its functionalization with high nutritional value ingredients, such as legumes, is the most ideal solution to shape consumers behavior towards healthier food choices. Aiming at improving the nutritional quality of semolina pasta, semi-liquid dough of a Mediterranean black chickpea flour, fermented with Lactiplantibacillus plantarum T0A10, was used at a substitution level of 15% to manufacture fortified pasta. Fermentation with the selected starter enabled the release of 20% of bound phenolic compounds, and the conversion of free compounds into more active forms (dihydrocaffeic and phloretic acid) in the dough. Fermented dough also had higher resistant starch (up to 60% compared to the control) and total free amino acids (almost 3 g/kg) contents, whereas antinutritional factors (raffinose, condensed tannins, trypsin inhibitors and saponins) significantly decreased. The impact of black chickpea addition on pasta nutritional, technological and sensory features, was also assessed. Compared to traditional (semolina) pasta, fortified pasta had lower starch hydrolysis rate (ca. 18%) and higher in vitro protein digestibility (up to 38%). Moreover, fortified cooked pasta, showing scavenging activity against DPPH and ABTS radicals and intense inhibition of linoleic acid peroxidation, was appreciated for its peculiar organoleptic profile. Therefore, fermentation technology appears to be a promising tool to enhance the quality of pasta and promote the use of local chickpea cultivars while preventing their genetic erosion.