A Survey on Dietary Supplement Consumption in Amateur and Professional Rugby Players
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SupplementedErgogenic aidsNutritionFootballSport team
Sánchez-Oliver, A.J.; Domínguez, R.; López-Tapia, P.; Tobal, F.M.; Jodra, P.; Montoya, J.J.; Guerra-Hernández, E.J.; RamosÁlvarez, J.J. A Survey on Dietary Supplement Consumption in Amateur and Professional Rugby Players. Foods 2021, 10, 7. [https://dx.doi.org/10.3390/foods10010007]
Purpose: the aim of the present study was to analyse the pattern of dietary supplements (DS) consumption on federated rugby players, including the analysis of differences based on the sex and competitive level (professional vs. amateurs). Material and methods: 144 rugby players (83 male and 61 female), of whom 69 were professionals and 75 amateurs, were recruited for the study. All the participants filled out a specific questionnaire about DS consumption including questions related to the consumption of DS and their effects on sport performance and health status. Results: 65.3% of participants declared consuming at least one DS, with a higher prevalence in males than females (77.1% vs. 49.2%) and in professionals thanin amateur players (79.7% vs. 52.0%). The main reason for consumption was to enhance sport performance (62.3%) with differences only based on sex (74.3% males vs. 43.2% females). The most common purchase sites were the Internet (45.6%) and specialised stores (39.8%). As to the moment of ingestion, professionals did this most frequently during competition and training (56.4% vs. 28.2%), whereas amateur players did so only during competition (20.5% vs. 3.6%). Moreover, professional player intake most frequently in post-exercise (65.5% vs. 35.9%), whereas amateur during pre-exercise (30.8% vs. 5.5%). The DS most consumed included whey protein (44%), caffeine (42%), sports drinks (38%), energy bars (34%) and creatine monohydrate (31%), with a higher prevalence in male and professional players of whey protein and creatine monohydrate. Conclusions: The main reason for DS consumption is for enhancing sports performance). Professional players more frequently purchase them on the Internet and consume DS during training and competition period and in the post-exercise, whereas amateur players consume during competition and pre-exercise. Related to the main form of DS consumption, it is observed that a moderate consumption of DS could be considered ergogenic, such as whey protein, sport bar and creatine, while an absence of other DS could be considered ergogenic.