Current Evidence on the Role of the Gut Microbiome in ADHD Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Implications
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Gastrointestinal microbiomeADHDCircadian rhythmsFatty acidsOmega 3Probiotics
Checa-Ros, A.; Jeréz-Calero, A.; Molina-Carballo, A.; Campoy, C.; Muñoz-Hoyos, A. Current Evidence on the Role of the Gut Microbiome in ADHD Pathophysiology and Therapeutic Implications. Nutrients 2021, 13, 249. [https://doi.org/10.3390/nu13010249]
Studies suggest that the bidirectional relationship existent between the gut microbiome (GM) and the central nervous system (CNS), or so-called the microbiome–gut–brain axis (MGBA), is involved in diverse neuropsychiatric diseases in children and adults. In pediatric age, most studies have focused on patients with autism. However, evidence of the role played by the MGBA in attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), the most common neurodevelopmental disorder in childhood, is still scanty and heterogeneous. This review aims to provide the current evidence on the functioning of the MGBA in pediatric patients with ADHD and the specific role of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (!-3 PUFAs) in this interaction, as well as the potential of the GM as a therapeutic target for ADHD. We will explore: (1) the diverse communication pathways between the GM and the CNS; (2) changes in the GM composition in children and adolescents with ADHD and association with ADHD pathophysiology; (3) influence of the GM on the !-3 PUFA imbalance characteristically found in ADHD; (4) interaction between the GM and circadian rhythm regulation, as sleep disorders are frequently comorbid with ADHD; (5) finally, we will evaluate the most recent studies on the use of probiotics in pediatric patients with ADHD.