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dc.contributor.authorGómez Sánchez, Jesica 
dc.contributor.authorRuiz Ballesteros, Jose Antonio
dc.contributor.authorMoreno Ríos, Sergio
dc.identifier.citationGo´mez-Sa´nchez J, Ruiz-Ballesteros JA, Moreno-Rı´os S (2020) How children and adults keep track of real information when thinking counterfactually. PLoS ONE 15(12): e0242967. []es_ES
dc.descriptionThis research was funded by grants from the Spanish Government, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness (PSI2015-63505-P; PGC2018095868-B-I00) to SM and the Education, Culture and Sport Ministry (FPU15/05899) to JG. The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.es_ES
dc.descriptionWe are very grateful to the schools for their assistance with data collection and to the directors, teachers and children for their cooperation. Finally, we wish to thank Ruth Byrne and Cristina Vargas for their helpful comments.es_ES
dc.description.abstractThinking about counterfactual conditionals such as “if she had not painted the sheet of paper, it would have been blank” requires us to consider what is conjectured (She did not paint and the sheet was blank) and what actually happened (She painted and the sheet was not blank). In two experiments with adults (Study 1) and schoolchildren from 7 to 13 years (Study 2), we tested three potential sources of difficulty with counterfactuals: inferring, distinguishing what is real vs conjectured (epistemic status) and comprehending linguistic conditional expressions (“if” vs “even if”). The results showed that neither adults nor schoolchildren had difficulty in the comprehension of counterfactual expressions such as “even if” with respect to “if then”. The ability to infer with both of these develops during school years, with adults showing great ability. However, the third source factor is critical: we found that the key to young children’s difficulty with counterfactual thinking was their inability to differentiate real and conjectured information, while adults showed little difficulty with this.es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipSpanish Government, Ministry of Economy and Competitiveness PSI2015-63505-P PGC2018095868-B-I00es_ES
dc.description.sponsorshipEducation, Culture and Sport Ministry FPU15/05899es_ES
dc.publisherPublic Library of Sciencees_ES
dc.rightsAtribución 3.0 España*
dc.titleHow children and adults keep track of real information when thinking counterfactuallyes_ES

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