Factors Influencing Dietary Patterns during Pregnancy in a Culturally Diverse Society
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AuthorFernández Gómez, Elisabet; Luque Vara, Trinidad; Moya Fernández, Pablo José; López Olivares, María; Gallardo Vigil, Miguel Ángel; Enrique Mirón, Carmen
Dietary patternsPregnancySociodemographic factorsPregnancy-related factorsLifestylesFactor loadings
Fernández-Gómez, E., Luque-Vara, T., Moya-Fernández, P. J., López-Olivares, M., Gallardo-Vigil, M. Á., & Enrique-Mirón, C. (2020). Factors Influencing dietary patterns during pregnancy in a culturally diverse society. Nutrients, 12(11), 3242. [doi:10.3390/nu12113242]
The aim of this study was to identify dietary patterns in pregnant women and to assess the relationships between sociodemographic, lifestyle-related, and pregnancy-related factors. This is a descriptive, correlational study involving 306 pregnant women in Melilla (Spain) in any trimester of pregnancy. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used. Dietary patterns were determined via exploratory factor analysis and ordinal logistic regression using the proportional odds model. Three dietary patterns were identified: Western, mixed, and prudent. Sociodemographic, lifestyle-related, and pregnancy-related factors influencing dietary quality were established. The Western dietary pattern was considered the least recommended despite being the most common among women who live in Melilla (p = 0.03), are Christian (p = 0.01), are primiparous women (p < 0.001), and are in their first or second trimester (p = 0.02). Unemployed pregnant women were also more likely to have a less healthy dietary pattern ( = -0.716; p = 0.040). The prudent dietary pattern, the healthiest of the three, was most commonly observed among Muslim women (p = 0.01), women with more than two children (p < 0.001), and women in the third trimester of pregnancy (p = 0.02). Pregnant women who engaged in no physical activity or a low level of physical activity displayed a mixed pattern (p < 0.001). This study provides evidence on the factors influencing dietary patterns during pregnancy and suggests that more specific nutrition programmes should be developed to improve the nutritional status of pregnant women.