treNch: Ultra-Low Power Wireless Communication Protocol for IoT and Energy Harvesting
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AuthorMoreno Cruz, Fernando; Toral López, Víctor; Rivadeneyra, Almudena; Morales Santos, Diego Pedro
Wireless sensor networks (WSN)Internet of Things (IoT)Ultra-low powerBluetooth Low Energy (BLE)Energy harvesting
Moreno-Cruz, F., Toral-López, V., Escobar-Molero, A., Ruíz, V. U., Rivadeneyra, A., & Morales, D. P. (2020). treNch: Ultra-Low Power Wireless Communication Protocol for IoT and Energy Harvesting. Sensors, 20(21), 6156. [doi:10.3390/s20216156]
SponsorshipECSEL Joint Undertaking through CONNECT project 737434; Federal Ministry of Education & Research (BMBF); European Union's Horizon 2020 research and innovation program; Spanish Ministry of Education, Culture and Sport (MECD)/FEDER-EU FPU18/01376; BBVA Foundation; University of Granada
Although the number of Internet of Things devices increases every year, efforts to decrease hardware energy demands and to improve efficiencies of the energy-harvesting stages have reached an ultra-low power level. However, no current standard of wireless communication protocol (WCP) can fully address those scenarios. Our focus in this paper is to introduce treNch, a novel WCP implementing the cross-layer principle to use the power input for adapting its operation in a dynamic manner that goes from pure best-effort to nearly real time. Together with the energy-management algorithm, it operates with asynchronous transmissions, synchronous and optional receptions, short frame sizes and a light architecture that gives control to the nodes. These features make treNch an optimal option for wireless sensor networks with ultra-low power demands and severe energy fluctuations. We demonstrate through a comparison with different modes of Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE) a decrease of the power consumption in 1 to 2 orders of magnitude for different scenarios at equal quality of service. Moreover, we propose some security optimizations, such as shorter over-the-air counters, to reduce the packet overhead without decreasing the security level. Finally, we discuss other features aside of the energy needs, such as latency, reliability or topology, brought again against BLE.