The Catalytic Cycle of the Antioxidant and Cancer-Associated Human NQO1 Enzyme: Hydride Transfer, Conformational Dynamics and Functional Cooperativity
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Antioxidant enzymesAntioxidant responseCancerOxidoreductasesEnzyme kinetic analysisFunctional cooperativityHydride transferKinetic isotope effectsQuantum tunnelingConformational dynamics
Anoz-Carbonell, E., Timson, D. J., Pey, A. L., & Medina, M. (2020). The Catalytic Cycle of the Antioxidant and Cancer-Associated Human NQO1 Enzyme: Hydride Transfer, Conformational Dynamics and Functional Cooperativity. Antioxidants, 9(9), 772 [doi:10.3390/antiox9090772]
SponsorshipERDF/Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities-State Research Agency RTI2018-096246-B-I00; Spanish Ministry of Science and Innovation-State Research Agency PID2019-103901GB-I00; Junta de Andalucía P11-CTS-07187 P18-RT-2413; Gobierno de Aragón-FEDER E35_20R
Human NQO1 [NAD(H):quinone oxidoreductase 1] is a multi-functional and stress-inducible dimeric protein involved in the antioxidant defense, the activation of cancer prodrugs and the stabilization of oncosuppressors. Despite its roles in human diseases, such as cancer and neurological disorders, a detailed characterization of its enzymatic cycle is still lacking. In this work, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the NQO1 catalytic cycle using rapid mixing techniques, including multiwavelength and spectral deconvolution studies, kinetic modeling and temperature-dependent kinetic isotope e ects (KIEs). Our results systematically support the existence of two pathways for hydride transfer throughout the NQO1 catalytic cycle, likely reflecting that the two active sites in the dimer catalyze two-electron reduction with di erent rates, consistent with the cooperative binding of inhibitors such as dicoumarol. This negative cooperativity in NQO1 redox activity represents a sort of half-of-sites activity. Analysis of KIEs and their temperature dependence also show significantly di erent contributions from quantum tunneling, structural dynamics and reorganizations to catalysis at the two active sites. Our work will improve our understanding of the e ects of cancer-associated single amino acid variants and post-translational modifications in this protein of high relevance in cancer progression and treatment.