Exosome: A New Player in Translational Nanomedicine
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ImmunotherapyExosomesCARsGene editingCancerLiquid biopsies
Aheget, H.; Tristán-Manzano, M.; Mazini, L.; Cortijo-Gutierrez, M.; Galindo-Moreno, P.; Herrera, C.; Martin, F.; Marchal, J.A.; Benabdellah, K. Exosome: A New Player in Translational Nanomedicine. J. Clin. Med. 2020, 9, 2380. [doi:10.3390/jcm9082380]
SponsorshipSpanish ISCIII Health Research Fund PI12/01097 PI15/02015 PI18/00337 PIE16-00045 DTS19/00145 PI18/00330; European Union (EU) PI12/01097 PI15/02015 PI18/00337 PIE16-00045 DTS19/00145 PI18/00330; Spanish Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities (MICIU) through FEDER research grant RTI2018-101309-B-C2; CECEyU Council of the Junta de Andalucia FEDER/European Cohesion Fund (FSE) 2016000073391-TRA 2016000073332-TRA PI-57069 PAIDI-Bio326 PI-0014-2016; CSyF Council of the Junta de Andalucia FEDER/European Cohesion Fund (FSE) 2016000073391-TRA 2016000073332-TRA PI-57069 PAIDI-Bio326 PI-0014-2016; Nicolas Monardes Regional Ministry of Health contract 0006/2018; Research Excellence PhD Fellowship from the National Center for Scientific and Technical Research (CNRST) 2UAE2020; Spanish Government FPU16/05467; SMSI through a GJ fellowship PEJ-2018-001760-A
Summary: Exosomes are extracellular vesicles released by the vast majority of cell types both in vivo and ex vivo, upon the fusion of multivesicular bodies (MVBs) with the cellular plasma membrane. Two main functions have been attributed to exosomes: their capacity to transport proteins, lipids and nucleic acids between cells and organs, as well as their potential to act as natural intercellular communicators in normal biological processes and in pathologies. From a clinical perspective, the majority of applications use exosomes as biomarkers of disease. A new approach uses exosomes as biologically active carriers to provide a platform for the enhanced delivery of cargo in vivo. One of the major limitations in developing exosome-based therapies is the difficulty of producing sufficient amounts of safe and efficient exosomes. The identification of potential proteins involved in exosome biogenesis is expected to directly cause a deliberate increase in exosome production. In this review, we summarize the current state of knowledge regarding exosomes, with particular emphasis on their structural features, biosynthesis pathways, production techniques and potential clinical applications.