Novel Sub-Clustering of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion Phenotypes in a Southern European Population Based on Proportional Measurements
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MalocclusionAngle Class IIIPhenotypePrincipal Component AnalysisClusteringOrthodontics
Frutos-Valle, Leixuri ; Martín, Conchita; Alarcón, José A.; Palma-Fernández, Juan C.; Ortega, Ricardo; Iglesias-Linares, Alejandro. 2020. "Novel Sub-Clustering of Class III Skeletal Malocclusion Phenotypes in a Southern European Population Based on Proportional Measurements." J. Clin. Med. 9, no. 9: 3048. [DOI: 10.3390/jcm9093048]
SponsorshipComplutense University, Madrid, Spain G/6400100/3000
Current phenotypic characterizations of Class III malocclusion are influenced more by gender or ethnic origin than by raw linear skeletal measurements. The aim of the present research is to develop a Class III skeletal malocclusion sub-phenotype characterization based on proportional cranial measurements using principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Radiometric data from 212 adult subjects (115 women and 96 men) of southern European origin affected by Class III skeletal malocclusion were analyzed. A total of 120 measurements were made, 26 were proportional skeletal measurements, which were used to perform principal component analysis and subsequent cluster analysis. The remaining 94 supplementary measurements were used for a greater description of the identified clusters. Principal component analysis established eight principal components that explained 85.1% of the total variance. The first three principal components explained 51.4% of the variance and described mandibular proportions, anterior facial height proportions, and posterior–anterior cranial proportions. Cluster analysis established four phenotypic subgroups, representing 18.4% (C1), 20.75% (C2), 38.68% (C3), and 22.17% (C4) of the sample. A new sub-clustering of skeletal Class III malocclusions that avoids gender influence is provided. Our results improve clinicians’ resources for Class III malocclusion and could improve the diagnostic and treatment approaches for this malocclusion.