Structure–Biological Activity Relationships of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds: Health Properties and Bioavailability
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AuthorRodríguez-López, Paloma; Lozano Sánchez, Jesús; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Menéndez, Javier A.; Segura Carretero, Antonio
Extra virgin olive oil phenolic compoundsChemical structureBioactivityBioavailability
Rodríguez-López, P.; Lozano-Sanchez, J.; Borrás-Linares, I.; Emanuelli, T.; Menéndez, J.A.; Segura-Carretero, A. Structure–Biological Activity Relationships of Extra-Virgin Olive Oil Phenolic Compounds: Health Properties and Bioavailability. Antioxidants 2020, 9, 685. [doi:10.3390/antiox9080685]
SponsorshipJunta de Andalucía B-AGR-466-UGR18
Extra-virgin olive oil is regarded as functional food since epidemiological studies and multidisciplinary research have reported convincing evidence that its intake affects beneficially one or more target functions in the body, improves health, and reduces the risk of disease. Its health properties have been related to the major and minor fractions of extra-virgin olive oil. Among olive oil chemical composition, the phenolic fraction has received considerable attention due to its bioactivity in different chronic diseases. The bioactivity of the phenolic compounds could be related to different properties such as antioxidant and anti-inflammatory, although the molecular mechanism of these compounds in relation to many diseases could have different cellular targets. The aim of this review is focused on the extra-virgin olive oil phenolic fraction with particular emphasis on (a) biosynthesis, chemical structure, and influence factors on the final extra-virgin olive oil phenolic composition; (b) structure–antioxidant activity relationships and other molecular mechanisms in relation to many diseases; (c) bioavailability and controlled delivery strategies; (d) alternative sources of olive biophenols. To achieve this goal, a comprehensive review was developed, with particular emphasis on in vitro and in vivo assays as well as clinical trials. This report provides an overview of extra-virgin olive oil phenolic compounds as a tool for functional food, nutraceutical, and pharmaceutical applications.