Influence of Electrostatic Interactions During the Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Polymerization on the Characteristics of Mo-Doped Carbon Gels
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AuthorMorales Torres, Sergio; Jirglová, Haana; Pastrana-Martínez, Luisa M.; Maldonado Hódar, Francisco José
Resorcinol-formaldehyde polymerizationSurfactantsMo-dopingChemical interactionsCarbon xerogelsPhysicochemical propertiesMetal nanoparticles
Morales-Torres, S., Jirglová, H., Pastrana-Martínez, L. M., & Maldonado-Hódar, F. J. (2020). Influence of Electrostatic Interactions During the Resorcinol-Formaldehyde Polymerization on the Characteristics of Mo-Doped Carbon Gels. Processes, 8(6), 746. [doi: 10.3390/pr8060746]
SponsorshipSpanish Project from ERDF/Ministry of Science, Innovation and Universities-State Research Agency RTI2018-099224-B-I00
The resorcinol (R)-formaldehyde (F) polymerization was carried out in different experimental conditions to obtain RF/Mo doped carbon xerogels with different morphology, porosity and nature and dispersion of metal. Attractive or repulsive electrostatic interactions were forced in the starting aqueous solution of RF-monomers using different synthesis conditions, namely, combinations of cationic or anionic surfactants, Mo-precursors and pH values. The results showed that when both cationic surfactant and Mo-precursor were used at neutral pH, attractive interactions with the anionic RF-macromolecules are favored during polymerization and the final carbon xerogel exhibited the most developed porosity and the strongest Mo-organic phase interaction, leading to deeper Mo-phase reduction during carbonization and the formation of highly-dispersed crystalline nanoparticles of Mo2C. On the contrary, the use of both anionic surfactant and Mo-precursor leads to repulsive interactions, which generates less porous carbon gels with a Mo-phase formed by large MoO3 platelet structures and low Mo-surface contents. RF/Mo-doped gels with intermediate properties were obtained by combining cationic and anionic surfactants, metal precursors or both. After carbonization, the obtained materials would be suitable to be used directly as catalysts with different physicochemical properties and active phases.