Metabolic Capability of Penicillium oxalicum to Transform High Concentrations of Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs
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AuthorOlicón Hernández, Darío Rafael; Ortúzar, Maite; Pozo Llorente, Clementina; González López, Jesús Juan
AscomycetesAnalgesicsEmerging contaminantsBiodegradationNon-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugsPenicillium oxalicum
Olicón-Hernández, D. R., Ortúzar, M., Pozo, C., González-López, J., & Aranda, E. (2020). Metabolic Capability of Penicillium oxalicum to Transform High Concentrations of Anti-Inflammatory and Analgesic Drugs. Applied Sciences, 10(7), 2479. [doi:10.3390/app10072479]
SponsorshipMINECO-ERDF funds [MINECO/AEI/ERDF, UE] RYC-2013-12481 CTM-2017-84332; Consejo Nacional de Ciencia y Tecnologia (CONACyT) 231581/454815
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and analgesics are two of the most employed drug groups around the world due to their use in the treatment of edema and pain. However, they also present an ecological challenge because they are considered as potential water pollutants. In this work, the biodegradation of four NSAIDs (diclofenac, ibuprofen, naproxen and ketoprofen) and one analgesic (acetaminophen) at 50 µM (initial concentration) by Penicillium oxalicum, at both flask and bioreactor bench scales, was evaluated. An important co-metabolic mechanism as part of the global bioremediation process for the elimination of these drugs was observed, as in some cases it was necessary to supplement glucose to achieve a 100% removal rate: both individually and as a complex mixture. Identical behavior in the implementation of a fluidized bench-scale batch bioreactor, inoculated with pellets of this fungus and the complex mix of the drugs, was observed. The role of the cytochrome P450 enzymes (CYP) in the biodegradation of the drugs mix were evidenced by the observation of hydroxylated by-products. The results on the reduction of toxicity (micro and phyto) were not conclusive; however, a reduction in phytotoxicity was detected.