Why Are Viscosity and Nonlinearity Bound to Make an Impact in Clinical Elastographic Diagnosis?
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AuthorRus Carlborg, Guillermo; Faris, Inas; Torres, Jorge; Callejas Zafra, Antonio Manuel; Melchor, Juan
Rus, G., Faris, I. H., Torres, J., Callejas, A., & Melchor, J. (2020). Why Are Viscosity and Nonlinearity Bound to Make an Impact in Clinical Elastographic Diagnosis?. Sensors, 20(8), 2379. [doi:10.3390/s20082379]
SponsorshipThis research was funded by Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte grant numbers DPI2017-83859-R, DPI2014-51870-R, UNGR15-CE-3664 and EQC2018-004508-P; Ministerio de Sanidad, Servicios Sociales e Igualdad grant numbers DTS15/00093 and PI16/00339; Instituto de Salud Carlos III y Fondos Feder; Junta de Andalucía grant numbers PI-0107-2017, PIN-0030-2017 and IE2017-5537; Juan de la Cierva Incorporación IJC2018-037167-I, Ministerio de Ciencia, Innovación y Universidades grant number PRE2018-086085.
The adoption of multiscale approaches by the biomechanical community has caused a major improvement in quality in the mechanical characterization of soft tissues. The recent developments in elastography techniques are enabling in vivo and non-invasive quantification of tissues’ mechanical properties. Elastic changes in a tissue are associated with a broad spectrum of pathologies, which stems from the tissue microstructure, histology and biochemistry. This knowledge is combined with research evidence to provide a powerful diagnostic range of highly prevalent pathologies, from birth and labor disorders (prematurity, induction failures, etc.), to solid tumors (e.g., prostate, cervix, breast, melanoma) and liver fibrosis, just to name a few. This review aims to elucidate the potential of viscous and nonlinear elastic parameters as conceivable diagnostic mechanical biomarkers. First, by providing an insight into the classic role of soft tissue microstructure in linear elasticity; secondly, by understanding how viscosity and nonlinearity could enhance the current diagnosis in elastography; and finally, by compounding preliminary investigations of those elastography parameters within different technologies. In conclusion, evidence of the diagnostic capability of elastic parameters beyond linear stiffness is gaining momentum as a result of the technological and imaging developments in the field of biomechanics.