A New Quota Approach to Electoral Disproportionality
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Electoral systemsProportionalityElectoral quotaDisproportionality indexesMeasurementSpainSwedenGermany
Martínez-Panero, M.; Arredondo, V.; Peña, T.; Ramírez, V. A New Quota Approach to Electoral Disproportionality. Economies 2019, 7, 17. [doi:10.3390/economies7010017]
SponsorshipWe are grateful for the financial support of the Spanish Ministerio de Economía y Competitividad (project ECO2016-77900-P).
In this paper electoral disproportionality is split into two types: (1) Forced or unavoidable, due to the very nature of the apportionment problem; and (2) non-forced. While disproportionality indexes proposed in the literature do not distinguish between such components, we design an index, called “quota index”, just measuring avoidable disproportionality. Unlike the previous indexes, the new one can be zero in real situations. Furthermore, this index presents an interesting interpretation concerning transfers of seats. Properties of the quota index and relationships with some usual disproportionality indexes are analyzed. Finally, an empirical approach is undertaken for different countries and elections.