Dietary Inflammatory Index, Dietary Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity, and Colorectal and Breast Cancer Risk (MCC-Spain Study)
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Colorectal cancerbreast cancerDietDietary inflammatory indexAntioxidantsNEACCase-control studyMCC-Spain
Obón-Santacana, M.; Romaguera, D.; Gracia-Lavedan, E.; Molinuevo, A.; Molina-Montes, E.; Shivappa, N.; Hebert, J.R.; Tardón, A.; Castaño-Vinyals, G.; Moratalla, F.; Guinó, E.; Marcos-Gragera, R.; Azpiri, M.; Gil, L.; Olmedo-Requena, R.; Lozano-Lorca, M.; Alguacil, J.; Fernández-Villa, T.; Martín, V.; Molina, A.J.; Ederra, M.; Moreno-Iribas, C.; Perez, B.; Aragonés, N.; Castello, A.; Huerta, J.M.; Dierssen-Sotos, T.; Gómez-Acebo, I.; Molina-Barceló, A.; Pollán, M.; Kogevinas, M.; Moreno, V.; Amiano, P. Dietary Inflammatory Index, Dietary Non-Enzymatic Antioxidant Capacity, and Colorectal and Breast Cancer Risk (MCC-Spain Study). Nutrients 2019, 11, 1406. [doi:10.3390/nu11061406]
SponsorshipGrants from the Catalan Government (2014SGR756, 2017SGR1085, 2017SGR733, SLT006/17/76), and European Regional Development Fund-ERDF, by the “Acción Transversal del Cancer”; Instituto de Salud Carlos III-FEDER (PI08/1770, PI08/0533, PI08/1359, PS09/00773-Cantabria, PS09/01286-León, PS09/01903-Valencia, PS09/02078-Huelva, PS09/ 01662-Granada, PI11/01403, PI11/01889-FEDER, PI11/00226, PI11/01810, PI11/02213, PI12/00488, PI12/00265, PI12/01270, PI12/00715, PI12/00150, PI14/01219, PI14/0613, PI15/00069, PI15/00914, PI15/01032, PI11/01810, PI14/01219, PI11/02213, PIE16/00049, PI17/01179, PI17-00092); Fundación Marqués de Valdecilla (API 10/09), by the Red Temática de Investigación del Cáncer (RTICC) del ISCIII(RD12/0036/0036), by the Junta de Castilla y León (LE22A10-2), by the Consejería de Salud of the Junta de Andalucía (PI-0571-2009, PI-0306-2011, salud201200057018tra), by the Conselleria de Sanitat of the Generalitat Valenciana (AP_061/10), by the Recercaixa (2010ACUP00310), by the Regional Government of the Basque Country, by the Consejería de Sanidad de la Región de Murcia, by the European Commission grants FOOD-CT-2006-036224-HIWATE, by the Spanish Association Against Cancer (AECC) Scientific Foundation – grant GCTRA18022MORE, by the Catalan Government-Agency for Management of University and Research Grants (AGAUR) grants 2014SGR647, 2014SGR850 and 2017SGR723
Inflammation and antioxidant capacity have been associated with colorectal and breast cancer. We computed the dietary inflammatory index (DII®), and the total dietary non-enzymatic antioxidant capacity (NEAC) and associated them with colorectal and breast cancer risk in the population-based multi case-control study in Spain (MCC-Spain). We included 1852 colorectal cancer and 1567 breast cancer cases, and 3447 and 1486 population controls, respectively. DII score and NEAC were derived using data from a semi-quantitative validated food frequency questionnaire. Unconditional logistic regression models were used to estimate odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) for energy-adjusted DII (E-DII), and a score combining E-DII and NEAC. E-DII was associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.93, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:1.60–2.32; p-trend: <0.001); this increase was observed for both colon and rectal cancer. Less pronounced increased risks were observed for breast cancer (OR = 1.22, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI:0.99–1.52, p-trend: >0.10). The combined score of high E-DII scores and low antioxidant values were associated with colorectal cancer risk (OR = 1.48, highest quartile versus lowest, 95%CI: 1.26–1.74; p-trend: <0.001), but not breast cancer. This study provides evidence that a pro-inflammatory diet is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk while findings for breast cancer were less consistent.