Programming Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Flexibility in Offspring of Male Rats in Response to Maternal Consumption of Slow Digesting Carbohydrates during Pregnancy
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AuthorSalto González, Rafael; Girón González, María Dolores; Manzano, Manuel; Martín, María J.; Vílchez, José D.; Bueno-Vargas, Pilar; Cabrera, Elena; Pérez Alegre, Mónica; Andújar, Eloisa; Rueda Valdivia, Ricardo; López-Pedrosa, José M.
Early programmingSkeletal muscleMuscle differentiationInsulin-resistant pregnancyMetabolic flexibilitySlow digesting carbohydrates
Salto, R., Girón, M. D., Manzano, M., Martín, M. J., Vílchez, J. D., Bueno-Vargas, P., ... & Lopez-Pedrosa, J. M. (2020). Programming Skeletal Muscle Metabolic Flexibility in Offspring of Male Rats in Response to Maternal Consumption of Slow Digesting Carbohydrates during Pregnancy. Nutrients, 12(2), 528.
SponsorshipThis research was funded by European Union’s Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007–2013): project Early Nutrition, under grant agreement no. 289346.
Skeletal muscle plays a relevant role in metabolic flexibility and fuel usage and the associated muscle metabolic inflexibility due to high-fat diets contributing to obesity and type 2 diabetes. Previous research from our group indicates that a high-fat and rapid-digesting carbohydrate diet during pregnancy promotes an excessive adipogenesis and also increases the risk of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease in the offspring. This effect can be counteracted by diets containing carbohydrates with similar glycemic load but lower digestion rates. To address the role of the skeletal muscle in these experimental settings, pregnant rats were fed high-fat diets containing carbohydrates with similar glycemic load but different digestion rates, a high fat containing rapid-digesting carbohydrates diet (HF/RD diet) or a high fat containing slow-digesting carbohydrates diet (HF/SD diet). After weaning, male offspring were fed a standard diet for 3 weeks (weaning) or 10 weeks (adolescence) and the impact of the maternal HF/RD and HF/SD diets on the metabolism, signaling pathways and muscle transcriptome was analyzed. The HF/SD offspring displayed better muscle features compared with the HF/RD group, showing a higher muscle mass, myosin content and differentiation markers that translated into a greater grip strength. In the HF/SD group, metabolic changes such as a higher expression of fatty acids (FAT/CD36) and glucose (GLUT4) transporters, an enhanced glycogen content, as well as changes in regulatory enzymes such as muscle pyruvate kinase and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 were found, supporting an increased muscle metabolic flexibility and improved muscle performance. The analysis of signaling pathways was consistent with a better insulin sensitivity in the muscle of the HF/SD group.