Exercise Training as a Treatment for Cardiometabolic Risk in Sedentary Adults: Are Physical Activity Guidelines the Best Way to Improve Cardiometabolic Health? The FIT-AGEING Randomized Controlled Trial
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AuthorAmaro Gahete, Francisco José; De-la-O, Alejandro; Jurado-Fasoli, Lucas; Martínez Téllez, Borja Manuel; Ruiz Ruiz, Jonatan; Castillo, Manuel J.
Concurrent trainingCholesterolInsulin resistanceInsulin sensitivityWhole-body electromyostimulationTriglycerides
Amaro-Gahete, F. J., De-la-O, A., Jurado-Fasoli, L., Martinez-Tellez, B., R Ruiz, J., & Castillo, M. J. (2019). Exercise Training as a Treatment for Cardiometabolic Risk in Sedentary Adults: Are Physical Activity Guidelines the Best Way to Improve Cardiometabolic Health? The FIT-AGEING Randomized Controlled Trial. Journal of Clinical Medicine, 8(12), 2097.
SponsorshipThe study was supported by the Spanish Ministry of Education (FPU14/04172 and FPU15/03960), by the University of Granada Plan Propio de Investigación 2016 (Excellence actions: Unit of Excellence on Exercise and Health [UCEES]) and Plan Propio de Investigación 2019-Programa Contratos-Puente, by the Junta de Andalucía, Consejería de Conocimiento, Investigación y Universidades, by the European Regional Development Fund (ERDF), ref. SOMM17/6107/UGR and by Redes Temáticas de Investigación Cooperativa RETIC grant Red SAMID RD16/0022.
This 12-week randomized controlled trial investigates the effects of different training modalities on cardiometabolic risk in sedentary, middle-aged adults, and examines whether alterations in cardiometabolic risk are associated with changes in those health-related variables that are modifiable by exercise training. The study subjects were 71 middle-aged adults (~54 years old; ~50% women) who were randomly assigned to one of the following treatment groups: (1) no exercise (control group), (2) concurrent training based on international physical activity recommendations (PAR group), (3) high intensity interval training (HIIT) group, or (4) HIIT plus whole-body electromyostimulation (HIIT+EMS group). A cardiometabolic risk score was calculated based on the International Diabetes Federation’s clinical criteria. A significant reduction in cardiometabolic risk was observed for all exercise training groups compared to the control group (all p < 0.05), which persisted after adjusting potential confounders (all p < 0.05). However, the HIIT+EMS group experienced the most significant reduction (p < 0.001). A significant inverse relationship was detected between the change in lean mass and the change in cardiometabolic risk (p = 0.045). A 12-week exercise training programs-especially the HIIT+EMS program-significantly reduced cardiometabolic risk in sedentary, middle-aged adults independent of sex, age, and cardiorespiratory fitness.