Visual Memory Test based on Snodgrass Pictures (VMT-SP): a New Neuropsychological Measure of Visual Memory on Children with Learning Disabilities
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Pontificia Universidad Javeriana
Visual memoryLearning disabilitiesNeuropsychologyChildren
Muñoz-Machicao, J. A., Fernández- Alcántara, M., Correa-Delgado, C., González- Ramírez, A. R., Pérez, M., & Laynez-Rubio, C. (2019). Visual memory test based on Snodgrass pictures (VMT-SP): a new neuropsychological measure of visual memory on children with learning disabilities. Universitas Psychologica, 18(2), 1-15.
Introduction: Visual memory can be defined as the ability to recall visual images in the form of objects events or words. Previous neuropsychological research on Learning Disabilities (LD) involving visual memory has been focused particularly on children who present nonverbal LD, and their scholar underachievement. Objective: This study aims to develop a visual memory test using recognisable objects and to determine their normative values and validity in a population of children with LD and in a control group. Methods and procedures: A total of 330 children participated in this study (7-14 years), 190 suffered of some kind of LD and 140 did not have any diagnosis. Visual Memory was assessed using a test (VMT-SP) based on Snodgrass Pictures (Snodgrass & Vanderwart, 1980) composed of a short-term, long-term and a recognition assessment. Rey Complex Figure Test (RCFT) and Hooper Visual Organisation Test (HVOT) were used to assess validity. Results: Short-term, long-term recall and long-term recognition differed significantly between the LD children and the control group. Moreover, the scores were influenced by the age of the children (with a higher percentage of correct answers being given by the older children), gender, habitat and mother’s level of education. Finally, the test results were associated with other measures of visual memory. Conclusions: VMT-SP is a new clinical tool for assessing visual memory. We present evidence of its concurrent validity and applicability in the evaluation of children with LD.